GOVERNMENT ROLE IN STRENGTHENING UNIVERSITY INDUSTRY LINKAGES:
REFFERING TO SOUTH KOREA EXPERIENCES
Dr. Sunda Ariana, M.Pd., M.M.
Universitas Bina Darma
South Korea is a developed country and said to be one of the ‘Four Tigers of Rising Asian’. The success of South Korea is because government paid attention and see that national economy advancement is due to science and technology development. South Korea government created policy called ‘National Concepts of Innovation’. The concepts were designed to elevate South Korea’s innovation recognized in national and international level. The government believed that university-industry linkages should have strong and long-term relationship and, therefore, financial support was provided to strengthen the linkages. The trilateral linkages proved that total number of Scientific Citation Index publication and joint patent between university-industry increased tremendously. South Korea has enjoyed the most remarkable economic growth with its ‘National Concepts of Innovation’. From the lesson learned, Indonesia may use the concept as a reference to boost science and technology and at the same time will also increase the economy advancement.
Keywords: innovation, industry, university, linkage, science and technology
South Korea was established on 15 August 1948 after Japan defeat in World War II in 1945. The name “Korea” is derived from Goryeo or Koryo, a dynasty which ruled in 918-1392. It covers a total area of 99,392 square kilometers and has a population of almost 50 million1. With number of population 7 times less than Indonesia and 3 years left behind for its independence day, South Korea holds ranks 14th in the world by nominal GDP.
By 1980, South Korea become a developed country and said to be one of the “Four Tigers” of rising Asian2. The fastest growth of South Korea is because government paid attention to education and see that national economy advancement is due to science and technology development. Government saw education as important as financial and social success. The success of South Korea’s national education programs shown by statistics demonstrate that in 1945 the adult literacy rate was estimated at 22%; by 1970 adult literacy was 87.6%; by 2010 adult literacy was 98.3%3. Government commitment in education also shown by the fact that South Korea was the first country in the world to provide high-speed internet access to every primary, junior, and high school4.
In higher education, government commitment to boost national education can be seen from its effort to bridge university-industry relation by providing policy to forge cooperation between university and industry since 1970 up to present. South Korea government took the risk to intervene university-industry relation in order to strengthen the bilateral relation. Despite the fact that Korean government created policy that seemed dictatorship of the 1970s, government policies are very important for shaping and continuously strengthening the cooperation. However, the effectiveness of government intervention cannot be taken for granted.
At present, South Korea government has a unique program to strengthen university-industry relation named Brain Korea 21st century (BK21). This program is one of government effort to boost South Korean innovation with a concept called National System of Innovation. From this program, South Korean’s innovation in science and technology has been recognized nationally and internationally. Government believed that national economy advancement is determined by an indigenous science and technology research capacity. Therefore, it is necessary to be aware that university-industry cooperation will work well with government intervention. South Korea government has trilateral model as follow.
1 “Korea Geography”. Asia Info.org. February 1, 2010, Retrieved February 2, 2012.
2 Castley, Robert, 2007, Korea’s Economic Miracle: The Crucial Role of Japan, London: MacMillan Press ltd.
3 Savada, Andrea Matles and William Shaw, 1990, “South Korea: A Country Study”. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress.
4 Onishi, Norimitsu. April2, 2006, Accessed 2 February 2012.
Castley, Robert, 2007, Korea’s Economic Miracle: The Crucial Role of Japan, London: MacMillan Press ltd.
Etzkowitz, H., and Leydesdorff, L, 2000, The Dynamic of Innovation: from National systems and Mode2 to Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government relations, Research Policy, 29 (22).
“Korea Geography”. Asia Info.org. February 1, 2010, Retrieved February 2, 2012.
Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (2008), News Briefing, September 11
Oberdofer, D, 2002, The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. Basic Books.
Onishi, Norimitsu. April2, 2006, Accessed 2 February 2012.
Park, Han Woo and Loet Leydesdorff, Longitudinal Trends in Networks of University-Industry-Government Relation in South Korea: The Role of Pragmatic Incentives, Accessed 27 January 2012.
Savada, Andrea Matles and William Shaw, 1990, “South Korea: A Country Study”. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress.
Yang, Joon Moo. University and Industry Linkages: the Case of Korea. Accessed 1 February 2012.
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