BUILDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MODEL IN SMEs SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: REVIEW

BUILDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MODEL IN SMEs SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: REVIEW

 

Dina Mellita

Faculty of Economics

Bina Darma University

dinamellita@mail.binadarma.ac.id

 

 

ABSTRACT

To almost all economies in the world, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) is important due to it’s role in contributing  to economic development of many countries around the world.  With no exception, SMEs  also have to be competitive and resilient to survive in today’s challenging environment In this area, competition not only between firm but between Supply Chain. Supply Chain Management (SCM) literature proposes that integrated control of these multi-firm network can provide significant benefit.  The utilization of information technology (IT) in turn, is considered an imperative requirement for managing these network and has been associated with significant supply chain efficiency improvements. The flexibility, quick decision-making, and co-operation from employees of the SMEs characteristic should build a specific patern of IT for this kind of firm. This paper provide a framework that constructs the model of IT specifically for SME’s Supply Chain Management. It’s conclude that IT is powerful technology for communication at the buyer-supplier interface in SMEs. Electronicmail (E-mail), Application Software, Internet Network, website and even SMS can lead the supply chain in area of buyer supplier partnership and beteer co-ordination and ensure competitive advantage of SMEs

 

Field of Research: Supply Chain Management (SCM), Information technology, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs)

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1. Introduction

Supply Chain Management (SCM) is defined as a series of interconnected activities which are concerned with planning, coordinating and controlling materials, parts and finished goods form supplier to customer (Stevens, 1989). SCM is one of the most powerful executive paradigms for competitive advantage of production companies and service providers (Gunasekaran, 2004). Today, organizations or individual firm are not important but rather the creation of added value occurs in the supply chain and its management. Just as competition has increased, customer expectations are also constantly changing. In other words,  more emphasis needs to be put on faster distribution, higher customer orientation, and better service quality and by timely access to information different production and distribution sectors should be supported.

To the effectiveness control of today’s complex supply chains the use of Information Technology (IT) considered important. Recent study explored that there is so many benefit brought about by IT to the industries. Within the application of IT, industry can improve supply chain agility, reduce cycle time, achieve higher efficiency, and deliver products to customer in a timely manner (Radjou, 2003). Besides, the implementation of IT in the SCM can enable a firm to develop and accumulate knowledge stores about its customers, suppliers and market demands, which in turn influences firm performance (Tippins, and Sohi, 2003).

However, current status of literature indicates that the impact IT in terms of SCM in the large firm leaving out SMEs who anyways start with a disadvantage due to their inherent resource constraints. Given that majority of the firms in economies today are Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), they are the ones that are acquired effective and efficient in gaining global competition and play very fundamental function in the economies of many developing countries through the creation of employment and provision of support services to larger firms (UNCTAD, 1993). Some research found that SMEs face a number of challenges which are likely to explain the performance of their supply chains and their survival, one of them is information technology accessibility (Onugu , 2005). Due to these identified limitations in the previous literature, this paper tend to built a model for IT model specifically on SMEs’ SCM.

 

2. Supply Chain Management and IT

Today, SCM is a critical element in today’s highly complex and competitive business  environment. It has direct influence on key issues like cost to market, time to market, responsiveness to changing customer demands and market dynamics and the overall business. SCM has received attention since early 1980’s (Moore, 2008).it can be described as a path of value creation frombasic producer through customer including all transportation and logistic sevices that connect them. In other words, SCM is a system which includes material suppliers, production facilities, distribution services and customer linked together by the feed forwars flow of materials and the feedback flow of formation (Stevens, 1989).

Supply chain management confines the notion of an organization to coordinate the activities from procurement to the final customer. Each component of the SCM activity supports another by focusing on each component operations across firms’ boundaries (McIvor and McHugh, 2000). Procurement in almost literature consider vital aspect of supply chains. According to Carr (1996), the constructs of procurement practices are strategic purchasing, purchasing risk taking and purchasing knowledge and skill.  Strategic purchasing involves planning, evaluating, implementing and controlling the operational activities of the purchasing function an effort to meet the objectives of the firm. Purchasing risk taking is about the long term focus of the purchasing function to take on risk when appropriate opportunities present themselves and relentless pursuit of company objectives by purchasing professionals. Then, the construct of purchasing knowledge and skills looks at the extent to which persons handling the procurement function exhibit high purchasing knowledge and skills. This includes ensuring that persons handling the procurement function are qualified, have the skills to monitor and interpret supply market changes as well as handle aspects of relationship with suppliers.

SCM requires a serious integration from planning process to order and sales. Niu (2010) recognize the components of a linear supply chain as upstream supply chain, internal supply chain and downstream supply chain. Each component of the SCM activity supports another by focusing on each component operations across firms’ boundaries (McIvor and McHugh, 2000). In order to be successful in SCM, firms should share their stock, production and promotion estimations and plan with customers and suppliers which form the other rings of the chain. In this area, Information access and data transfer are highly recommended in SCM systems.  Reservation of information and avoiding use use of technology by some firms reduce pace and effectiveness of supply chain.

Jaana Auramo et al (…..) investigates the role of IT in SCM, They develop three different types of IT in use in SCM as follows: transaction processing, supply chain planning and collaboration, order tracking and delivery coordination. Transaction processing stands for the use IT for increasing the efficiency of repetitive information exchanges between supply chain partners. In this type of IT use the exchange information is typically related to such task as order processing, billing, delivery verification, generating and sending dispatch advices and producing order quotes. The supply chain planning and collaboration type represents the use of IT for sharing planning-related information such as demand forecasts and other demand information, inventory information, and producing capacity information, with the intention of increasing the effectiveness of the supply chain. And the last is the third type of IT use in SCM, order tracking and delivery coordination which refers to the monitoring of individual orders or shipments, which include of component or final product, with the aim of coordinating their delivery or conveying timely information of their location.

 

SCM IN SME

Small and Medium enterprises are defined in several ways, but most commonly as firm that have up to 250 employees. In other literature, SMEs describe as an entity which deploys limited resources due to its small size, with less information and integration, and employs less trained workers with short-term goals 9Persona et al., 2004).  As a group, these enterprises already provide wide-scale employment: jobs in small and medium enterprises account for more than half off all formal employment worldwide and 45% of formal employment in developing countries (Ayyagari et al, 2007). SMEs are seen by many national governments and international development organizations as important engines of innovation, economic growth, employment and poverty reduction.

SCM is perceived by SMEs differently. In several researches assumes that SMEs do not perceive their supplier to be their partners, rather, they perceive them to be a process which protects them against lack of production (Udomleartpresert et al., 2003). Udemleartpresert proposed Vertical Chain Management Model to increase SME’s bargaining power and relationship with customer. The of this model is to maximizing bilateral benefits with supplier in the chain and gaining bargaining power over supplier through establishment of a union by SMEs operating in the same sector.

Most studies on SCM did not take the size of firm as consideration. It means there is no sufficient research on to what extent SCM fits to SMEs and whether it is right to implement exactly the same SCM, which is implemented on big firms, on SMEs. Arend and Wisher (2005) found that SMEs do not implemented SCM rightly, they do not use SCM strategies fullyand they do not select SCM freely. In fact, there is week harmony between SCM and SMEs. Within their study, it was concluded that SMEs are willing to use supply chain after they begin using their supplier’s electronic data interchange (EDI) system.

In the research conducted by Hatice Cahpmar (2007) on SME Supply Chain Management Model, it was concluded that SMEs Supply Chain devided into 2 stage. The first stage of the model takes places place in supply and production centers and the scond stage takes place in product and customer center in consideration of their ffeatures and qualification. In supply-production stage of the model there are supply center, customer center and production center. SME union, which is among these institutions, provides integration among institutions at the first stage. The second stage, which is product-customer center, consist of bulk supplier, retail  dealer and customer center, there is information flow in the opposite direction.

 

Figure 1. SME Supply Chain Management Model

 

 Information Technology in SME

As competition began to increase, and the supply-based market was replaced by the consumer-based market where there were plenty of suppliers to satisfy the consumer’s demand, corporations were compelled to improve their performance in order to survive in this everchanging market. Thus, rapid changes in information technology (IT) force enterprises to adapt new development. In other words, IT is critical to the success of most businesses especially small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

 

In the late nineties, web-based technologies were introduced and corporations started realizing the immense potential carried by these technologies.

 

 

 

 

Based on the objective of this study that is to examine the influence of student trainees’ bullying experiences and emotional dissonance on their subsequent career intentions, the above theoretical framework was developed (Figure 1). The instrument used was adopted from Rayner & Hoel (1997), Chu & Murrmann (2006) and Zahari (2004) earlier related studies.

6. Methodology

6.1 Sample and data collection method

Diploma students majoring in culinary arts and hotel management from two universities in Malaysia was the focus of this study based on their prior practicum training experiences in various hotels in Malaysia. A structured group-administered questionnaire using 7-point Likert scale was used in assessing the students’ self-reported experiences and feedbacks. The students were gathered and asked to respond to the questionnaire in a group administered setting in the faculty conference halls.

 

6.2 Instrumentation

The following Table 1 indicates the measures of the study variables used in the study. The instrument items were adopted from previous studies by Rayner, & Hoel, (1997), Dormann & Zapf (2004), Chu & Murrmann (2006), Maslach & Jackson (1986) and Zahari (2004).

 

 

7. Finding & Discussion

7.1 Reliability analysis

The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient value for all variables in the study revealed a range of coefficient value from .78 to .82 accordingly. The dependent variable of subsequent career intentions scale had a high reliability coefficient of .82 as compared to the independent variables. The independent variables of workplace bullying and emotional dissonance had coefficient values of .78 and .79 respectively.

 

7.2 Descriptive statistics & analysis

The findings showed that the distribution of gender was higher for females with a total of 157 female respondents (67.7%). On the other hand, there were 75 male respondents or 32.3 percent out of the total respondents. The age of the respondents showed that most of them were 21 years old, 13.4% were 20 years old and the rest (15.1%) were above 21 years old.

 

 

8. Conclusion and Future Recommendation

Although the findings showed significant influences of workplace bullying on student trainees’ subsequent career intentions and emotional dissonance experiences did not, more detail investigation is recommended to seek and better clarify other variables similar to this study. The findings provide human resource or training managers with information on how to deal with and eliminating bullying behavior or even tendencies to do so..

 

Acknowledgement

This paper is under scholarship of the university.

 

References

Abraham, R. (1999). Emotional dissonance in organizations: conceptualizing the roles of self-esteem and job-induced tension, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 20(1), 18-25.

 

Bloisi, W., & Hoel, H. (2008). Abusive work practices and bullying among chefs: A review of the literature. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27, 649-656.

 

Bubany, S. T., Krieshok, T. S., Black, M. D., & McKay, R. A. (2008). College students’ perspectives on their career decision making. Journal of Career Assessment, 16(2), 177-197.

 

Abraham, R. (1999). Emotional dissonance in organizations: conceptualizing the roles of self-esteem and job-induced tension, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 20(1), 18-25.

 

Bloisi, W., & Hoel, H. (2008). Abusive work practices and bullying among chefs: A review of the literature. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27, 649-656.

 

Bubany, S. T., Krieshok, T. S., Black, M. D., & McKay, R. A. (2008). College students’ perspectives on their career decision making. Journal of Career Assessment, 16(2), 177-197.

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Sistem Keuangan Mikro (Microfinance) Berbasis Syariah Sebagai Alternatif Dalam Meningkatkan Pembangunan Sosial Ekonomi Usaha Kecil Menengah di Indonesia

Sistem Keuangan Mikro (Microfinance) Berbasis Syariah Sebagai Alternatif Dalam Meningkatkan Pembangunan Sosial Ekonomi Usaha Kecil Menengah di Indonesia

Dina Mellita
Universitas Bina Darma
Jalan Jenderal Ahmad Yani No.12, Palembang
Pos-el: dinamellita@mail.binadarma.ac.id

Abstrak
Pertumbuhan ekonomi dan pesatnya pembangunan industry membawa Indonesia menjadi salah satu ekonomi paling terbuka di dunia. Sebagai Negara yang sedang berkembang, pemerintah membuat kebijakan untuk mendorong usaha kecil menengah untuk semakin kompetitif dalam menghadapi perekonomian yang semakin global. Sebagai suatu negara yang penduduknya mayoritas muslim berdampak juga pada system pembiayaan dan mikro kredit UKM. Selama ini, UKM memiliki kendala dalam aksesnya untuk mendapatkan sumber pembiayaan. Jaminan dan skala usaha yang tidak sesuai dengan persyaratan pembiayaan menjadi kendala utama bagi UKM untuk mendapatkan pembiayaan. Agar dapat bertahan dalam lingkungan bisnis global yang semakin kompetitif, pembiayaan dan kredit mikro untuk UKM berbasis syariah menjadi salah satu alternative untuk meningkatkan kinerja dari UKM. Kajian ini membahas perkembangan keuangan mikro (microfinance) berbasis syariah sebagai salah satu alternative dalam sumber pembiayaan pada UKM. Keuangan mikro pada system perekonomian Indonesia dikaji melalui tiga indikator yaitu, Bank Perkreditan Rakyat Syariah (BPRS), Baitul Maal wat Tamwil (BMT) dan produk-produk keuangan syariah. Hasilnya, walaupun keuangan mikro yang berbasis syariah tidak sepopuler yang dimiliki oleh konvensial, namun system keuangan mikro berbasis syariah ini perlu untuk dijadikan sebagai salah satu alternative sebagai sumber keuangan untuk UKM.

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SEM

 

Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Dalam Membangun Ekuitas Merek

(Brand Equity) Universitas Bina Darma

Dina Mellita, Wiwin Agustian

Lecturer at Universitas Bina Darma

Jalan Jenderal Ahmad Yani No.12, Palembang

Pos-el: dmellita@yahoo.com

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Abstract:This study purposes a brand equity at Bina Darma University from their student prespective and it uses structural equation model to analyze the model’s appropriateness. This study proceeds with random sampling along with face-to-face questionnaire to the 103 student as a sample. Brand equity employed with 5 indicators, there are brand awareness, perceived quality, brand loyalty, brand reliabilityand brand feeling. Descriptive statistics shows respondents highly agree with the BDU brand equity.But from the result it is shows that there is room from continous improvement especially on curriculum improvement. Moreover, the proposed model displays the rigorous and robust method of SEM and the statistically significant level of the model fits into the likert scales (from GFI and CFI). It reveals that management should focus on brand equity that will reflect BDU performance.

Keywords: brand equity, structural equation modelling

Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan ekuitas merek Universitas Bina Darma melalui analisis Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Dengan menggunakan teknik random sampling terhadap 103 mahasiswa UBD data diolah dengan menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan inferensial. Hasil analisis deskriptif menunjukkan ekuitas merek yang dilihat dari responden yang merupakan mahasiswa UBD cukup tinggi. Walaupun demikian, ada beberapa hal yang harus diperhatikan dan ditingkatkan khususnya pada perbaikan dan peningkatan kurikulum. Model yang disajikan melalui analisis SEM memperlihatkan model yang sesuai dengan data, yang dilihat dari ondeks GFI dan CFI. Hal ini berarti bahwa pihak-pihak terkait harus memperhatikan indikator-indikator pada ekuitas merek dalam meningkatkan mutu agar dapat bersaing dengan perguruan tinggi lain.

Kata kunci:ekuitas merek, structural equation modelling

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A.Latar Belakang

Dewasa ini, Brand Equity atau ekuitas merek merupakan salah satu konsep yang menjadi fokus utama dalam bidang pemasaran. Brand equity dapat didefinisikan sebagai nilai tambah yang dibawa suatu merek produk barang atau jasa melebihi manfaat fungsional yang diberikan produk atau jasa itu sendiri. Kotler dan Armstrong (2004), mengartikanbrand equity sebagai efek diferensiasi yang positif yang dapat diketahui dari respon konsumen terhadap barang atau jasa. Jadi brand equity adalah kekuatan suatu brand yang dapat menambah atau mengurangi nilai dari brand itu sendiri yang dapat diketahui dari respon konsumen terhadap barang atau jasa yang dijual.

Memahami brand equity merupakan suatu proses dimana seseorang atau pihak-pihak yang terkait mengidentifikasi bagaimana keseluruhan aspek dan keterkaitan atau hubungan antara aspek-aspek dari suatu barang atau jasa dari suatu merek menimbulkan kepuasan. Menurut Soehadi (2005), secara umum kekuatan suatu merek (brand equity) dapat diukur berdasarkan 7 indikator, yaitu: Kepemimpinan, Stabilitas, Pasar, Kemampuan keluar dari areanya (Internationality), Trend, Support dan Proteksi.

Perspektif konsumen mengenai brand equity dikaji oleh Keller (1993) dan Aaker (1991). Keller berpendapat bahwa komponen dari brand equity adalah brand awareness (kesadaran merek) dan brand image (citra merek). Dimensi brand awareness ditentukan dari adanya informasi yang tersedia mengenai suatu merek karena adanya aktivitas promosi yang dilakukan oleh perusahaan dan berasal dari arti merek itu sendiri (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993). Dimensi kedua adalah brand image (citra merek) yang ditentukan oleh atribut simbolis (symbolic attributes), atribut jasa (service attributes), atribut penyedia (provider attributes) dan atribut konsumen (consumer attributes). Atribut symbolik merupakan brand image sosial dan meunjukkan keberadaan suatu merek dalam suatu pasar yang dihubungkan dengan kualitasnya (Lovelock, 1991; Temple, 2006; Kurz, Scannell dan Veeder, 2008; chen, 2008; Mourad, 2010).

Aspek tidak berwujud (intangible) yang merupakan ciri khas industri jasa dianggap akan meningkatkan persepsi resiko (perceived risk) konsumen pada saat membuat keputusan untuk membeli. Persepsi negatif merupakan konsekuensi negatif yang konsumen ingin hindari ketika membeli atau menggunakan suatu jasa. Tingginya tingkat persepsi resiko yang dialami konsumen dalam membeli suatu jasa disebabkan karakteristik pembelian jasa yang amat tergantung dengan tingginya pengalaman dan tingkat kepercayaan terhadap kualitas jasa yang digunakan serta rendahnya tingkat pencarían dalam kualitas. Untuk itu membangun ekuitas merek pada industri jasa sangatlah penting untuk mengurangi persepsi resiko yang diterima konsumen serta menciptakan identitas yang kuat guna meningkatkan daya saing di pasar industri.

Satu metode praktis yang digunakan untuk membangun dan mengidentifikasi ekuitas merek atau Brand Equity adalah melalui Structural Equation modeling (SEM). Dibanding metode lain seperti analisis regresi dan Model Pemilihan Diskrit (Discrete Choice Model), SEM sangat general serta merupakan teknik multivariate yang menggabungkan berbagai versi dari teknik-teknik multivariate yang ada. Dapat dikatakan SEM merupakan model linear lanjutan yang secara simultan memprediksi hubungan antar veriabel bebas berganda, terikat bahkan variabel pengganggu (latent variable).

Yang menjadi kekuatan dalam metode SEM adalah semua variable dapat diekspresikan dalam diagram jalur (Path Diagram) sehingga memudahkan phak-pihak terkait seperti klien, dan menejer pemasaran memahami output yang dihasilkan metode ini secara awam sekalipun. Dalam diagram ini memperihatkan hubungan antar variable yang diperihatkan oeh garis arah sebab akibat. Seain itu, metode ini memiiki kemampuan untuk menghadapi latent variable dalam analisisnya.

Industri jasa yang akan diteliti adalah industri pendidikan tinggi. Perspektif konsumen mengenai suatu merek perguruan tinggi juga salah satu hal yang penting untuk diketahui. Selama ini tidak banyak penelitian yang mengkaji perspektif konsumen mengenai barang komersial tetapi hanya sedikit yang meneliti mengenai perspektif mereka terhada merek suatu jasa pendidikan khususnya pendidikan tinggi. Mourad, Ennew dan Kortam (2010) mengkaji peran ekuitas merek pada industry jasa pendidikan tinggi menemukan bahwa secara deskriptif merek memegang peranan penting dalam keputusan pembelian konsumen karena merek dianggap mampu menyampaikan informasi mengenai pengalaman dan kepercayaan tentang kualitas merek itu sendiri sehingga akan menurunkan resiko yang akan diterima konsumen.

Universitas Bina Darma sebagai salah satu perguruan tinggi swasta di Kota Palembang dikategorikan sebagai organisasi jasa, saat ini mengalami suatu perubahan yang fundamental. Perubahan kurikulum, perubahan metode pengajaran, perubahan sistem paket semester menjadi sistem kredit semester, dan sebagainya berdampak antara lain pada lamanya masa studi serta kualitas lulusan yang lebih baik. Perubahan ini dilakukan untuk mengantisipasi perubahan lingkungan terutama dalam menyambut era globalisasi. Perubahan ini bukan hanya disebabkan karena pesatnya perkembangan ilmu, teknologi dan seni, melainkan juga karena perubahan ekspektasi masyarakat terhadap peranan perguruan tinggi dalam merintis hari depan bangsa dan negara.

Tuntutan terhadap perguruan tinggi dewasa ini bukan hanya sebatas kemampuan untuk menghasilkan lulusan yang diukur secara akademik, melainkan keseluruhan program dan lembaga-lembaga perguruan tinggi harus mampu membuktikan kualitas yang tinggi yang didukung oleh akuntabilitas yang ada. Bukti prestasi, penilaian, sertifikasi kualitas, keberhasilan alumni dalam mendapatkan pekerjaan yang sesuai dengan bidang ilmunya, serta hasil evaluasi juga dibutuhkan untuk memperoleh pengakuan dari masyarakat.

Untuk memenuhi tuntutan itu, maka Universitas Bina Darma (UBD) melalui program-program studinya perlu memperoleh kepercayaan masyarakat dengan jaminan kualitas (quallity assurance), pengendalian kualitas (quality control), perbaikan kualitas (quality improvement). Jaminan, pengendalian, dan pembinaan atau perbaikan kualitas dapat diberikan kepada perguruan tinggi atau program studi yang telah dievaluasi secara cermat melalui proses akreditasi secara nasional (Badan AkreditasiNasional Perguruan Tinggi, 1998). Selain evaluasi kualitas yang dilakukan oleh BAN, perguruan tinggi sebagai salah satu organisasi jasa yang bergerak dibidang pendidikan, perlu juga melakukan evaluasi atas kualitas jasa dari konsumen, terutama mahasiswanya. Evaluasi kualitas jasa di perguruan tinggi dapat dilakukan untuk mengetahui apa yang sebenarnya diharapkan oleh mahasiswa dan apa yang selama ini dipersepsikan oleh mahasiswa atas kualitas jasa yang diterimanya. Berdasarkan keadaan ini, maka perlu diteliti mengenai kualitas jasa pendidikan tinggi dari perspektif mahasiswa itu sendiri melalui analisis SEM.

B. Metode Penelitian

Pengumpulan Data dan Pemilihan Sampel

Jenis penelitian yang digunakan untuk mengetahui Ekuitas Merk (Brand Equity) UBD adalah penelitian survey. Kerlinger dalam Sugiyono (1999) mengemukakan bahwa penelitian survey adalah penelitian yang dilakukan pada populasi besar maupun kecil, tetapi data yang dipelajari adalah data sample yang diambil dari populasi tersebut, sehingga ditemukan kejadian-kejadian relatif, distribusi dan hubungan antar variable sosiologis maupun psikologis.

Data yang diambil merupakan data primer primer yang diperoleh peneliti dari penyebaran kuisioner kepada responden. Jumlah sampel yang diambil sebanyak 103 responden mahasiswa aktif di UBD. Prosedur pemngambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakan non-probabilitas sampling yaitu simple random sampling.

Pengukuran Variabel

Variabel yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah Ekuitas Merek (Brand Equity), melalui 5 (lima) indikator yang terdiri dari: Kesadaran merek (Brand Awareness), Kualitas Jasa yang Diterima (Perceived Quality), Kesetiaan Merek (Brand Loyalty), Keberadaan Merek (Brand Reliability), Hubungan Merek (Brand Feeling). Sedangkan pertanyaan-pertanyaan dalam kuesioner merupakan jenis pertanyaan tertutup dengan metode pengukuran skala likert yang terdiri dari 5 jawaban, yaitu sangat setuju (5), setuju (4), tidak pasti (3), tidak setuju (2), sangat tidak setuju (1)

C. Hasil dan Pembahasan

Karakteristik Responden

Responden dalam penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa aktif UBD. Responden dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 103 orang, yang sebagian besar responden adalah pria (57%) sedangkan sisanya 43% adalah wanita. Sedangkan berdasarkan kategori umur, rata-rata responden berada dalam kelompok 18- 21 tahun. Kategori kelompok umur ini merupakan umur yang tepat untuk masa kuliah. Dalam hal ini, responden yang mengisi kuisioner ini rata-rata adalah kelompok umur yang pada saat selesai menempuh sekolah menengah atas (SMA) langsung memasuki perguruan tinggi. Sedangkan hanya sedikit responden (3%) yang bekerja dulu baru melanjutkan kuliahnya.

Tabel 1

Karakteristik Responden

Variabel

Frekuensi

%

Jenis Kelamin:

Pria

59

57,3

Fakultas :

Ekonomi

47

45,6

Umur:

18-21 tahun

60

58,3

Status

Belum Menikah

81

78,6

Semester :

Semester VIII

17

16,5

Sumber: data sudah diolah

Selain umur, status perkawinan responden merupakan salah satu butir yang ditanyakan dalam penelitian ini. Hal ini disebabkan selain umur, status perkawinan akan mempengaruhi tingkat kematangan responden dalam menjawab kuisioner yang diberikan. Hasil kuesioner memperlihatkan bahwa mayoritas responden (79%) adalah belum menikah sedangkan sisanya (21%) sudah menikah.

Dari hasil pengolahan data, respondent rata-rata merupakan mahasiswa semester akhir Fakultas Ekonomi. Berhubung pada saat kuesioner ini dibagikan merupakan saat libur semester, maka yang ditanyakan adalah semester terakhir yang ditempuh oleh responden. Dengan menggunakan metode random sampling, terlihat bahwa sebagian besar responden yang mengisi kuesioner ini adalah mahasiswa yang berada di semester akhir. Hal ini disebabkan kebanyakan mahasiswa yang berada di kampus pada saat libur semester adalah mahasiswa semester akhir karena mereka tengah mempersiapkan ujian skripsi.

Persepsi Responden Mengenai Ekuitas Merek UBD

Ekuitas merek secara keseluruhan dipandang oleh responden cukup tinggi. Ini dilihat dari nilai rata-rata keseluruhan indikator ekuitas merek yang mendapat nilai cukup tinggi yaitu 4,04. Ini berarti bahwa responden menganggap ada nilai tambah tersendiri pada saat mendengar atau melihat merek UBD. Sedangkan secara mandiri, indikator Kesadaran Merek (Brand Awareness) memiliki nilai paling tinggi dibandingkan indikator lain. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa di mata responden ekuitas merek UBD telah terbentuk. Sejalan dengan Keller (1993) yang menyatakan bahwa ekuitas merek konsumen terbentuk pada saat pengetahuan akan merek yang dimiliki konsumen memberikan dampak pada respon konsumen yang berbeda terhadap pemasaran suatu merek. Selain itu pengetahuan akan merek dari konsumen merupakan hal yang terpenting dalam mengkonseptualisasikan dan membangun ekuitas merek yang pada akhirnya merek tersebut akan menambah nilai pada produk barang atau jasa jika konsumen memiliki pengetahuan positif tentang merek. Artinya, dengan hasil ini, secara deskriptif dapat dikatakan bahwa responden memiliki respon yang positif terhadap ekuitas merek UBD.

Kesadaran merek didefinisikan sebagai persepsi konsumen mengenai kekuatan yang ada dalam merek itu sendiri. Dalam hal ini kesadaran merek diukur berdasarkan kemampuan konsumen untuk mengidentifikasi merekdari berbagai elemen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata hasil keseluruhan adalah 4,32. Ini menunjukkan bahwa kesadaran merek yang direfleksikan melalui elemen-elemen dari logo atau lambang UBD cukup tinggi menurut responden. Indikator tertinggi terlihat pada bagaimana mahasiswa mengidentifikasi logo/lambang UBD. Dalam hal ini, mereka sangat mengenal dengan baik logo dan lambang UBD. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa UBD dengan logo dan lambang yang disandangnya telah mencerminkan enam dimensi makna dalam Kotler(2004) yaitu atribut, manfaat, nilai, budaya, kepribadian dan pemakai. Ini berarti bahwa, UBD telah cukup mampu menanamkan identitas merek di mata masyarakat.Karena pada hakekatnya merek merupakan janji penjual untuk secara konsisten memberikan seperangkat atribut, manfaat dan pelayanan.

Hasil kuesioner mendeskripsikan persepsi responden mengenai kualitas merek yang diterima (Perceived Quality) oleh responden menunjukkan secara keseluruhan kualitas yang cukup tinggi (3,91). Menurut Aaker (1991), kualitas yang diterima merupakan elemen merek yang berhubungan dengan gambaran status asset dari merek berdasarkan harga, tingkat kepercayaan dari suatu bisnis walaupun bukan suatu hal yang prinsip dan merupakan salah satu aspek bagaimana suatu merek diterima. Artinya, hasil kuesioner menunjukkan bahwa responden dalam hal ini mahasiswa sangat setuju dengan kualitas pendidikan yang ditawarkan oleh UBD. Selain itu, responden sangat terbuka dengan adanya pengembangan atau inovasi dari program yang ditawarkan UBD. Hal ini terlihat dari persepsi responden yang menyatakan bahwa program dan kurikulum yang ditawarkan belum cukup memuaskan keinginan responden

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Jurnal Stress2

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Impact Job Stress On Performance Among Administration Employee At Bina Darma University Palembang

Dina Mellita

Lecturer at Universitas Bina Darma

Jalan Jenderal Ahmad Yani No.12, Palembang

Pos-el: dmellita@yahoo.com

______________________________________________________________

Abstract:This study conducted to asses the impact of job stress on performance among administration employee at Bina darma university Palembang. The determinants of job stress that have been examined under this study measured include workload pressure Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and performance Pressure. On the other hand, work performance measure by knowledge, Skill, Attitude/Job Enthusiasm and Effectiveness/Job quality. Within census to 47 administration employee the result shows that job stress has negative relationship with work performance. By using descriptive analysis also shows that respondents have problem at performace pressure indicators and effectiveness. From the study, it was conducted that this study support Kazmi and Rubina’s finding that job stress has negative impact to job performance.

Keywords: Job stress, workload pressure, role ambiguity, role conflict, performance pressure and work performance

Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan hubungan stress kerja yang dihadapi pegawai administrasi Universitas Bina Darma Palembang terhadap prestasi kerjanya. Indikator variabel stress kerja pada penelitian ini adalah beban kerja (workload), ketidakjelasan peran (Role Conflict), ambiguitas peran (Role Ambiguity), dan tekanan kinerja (performance pressure). Dengan menggunakan metode statistik deskriptif melalui mean, standar deviasi pegawai administrasi Universitas Bina Darma memiliki masalah pada tekanan kerja sedangkan pada indikator prestasi kerja, efektifitas kerja menjadi fakus perhatian utama yang harus diperhatikan untuk meningkatkan prestasi kerja karyawan administrasi Universitas Bina Darma. Sedangkan melalui analisis regresi, stress kerja memiliki hubungan negatif dengan prestasi kerja. Ini berarti mendukung penelitian yang dilakukan kazmi dan rubina (2007) bahwa stress kerja di kalangan karyawan Universitas Bina Darma akan meningkatkan prestasi kerjanya.

Kata kunci: stress kerja, beban kerja, ketidakjelasan peran, ambiguitas peran, tekanan kerja, prestasi kerja



A. Introduction

From the perspective of jobplace, the job-related stress can be defined as the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them at work (HSE, 2008). According to NIOSH (1999), the job stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker.

Stress has been defined in different ways over years. Originally, it was conceived as pressure from the environment, then as strain within the person. The generally accepted definition today is one of the interactions between the sistuation and the individual. It is the psychological and physical state that result when the resources of the individual are not sufficient to cope with the demands and pressures of the situation. Thus, stress is more likely in some situation than others in some individual than others (Michie, 2002).

Jobplace, Workplace stress or stress is not necessarily a negative phenomenon and it would therefore be a mistake to concentrate only on its pathological effects (ILO, 2001). In fact, the stress is a normal affair in life (Ahmad Shukri, 2007). Therefore, a moderate level of stress is necessary to be an important motivated factor for individuals, and without some pressures, life would become boring and without purpose (Ornelas, 2003). Besides, a moderate level of stress can be instrumental in achieving a dynamic adaptation to new situations (ILO, 2001). However, stress has a very high cost for individuals, companies and organizations if the stress is gradually increased (ILO, 2001).

Job (Occupational, work or workplace) stress has become one of the most serious health issues in the modern world (Lu et al., 2003, 479), as it occurs in any job and is even more present than decades ago. Namely, the world of work differs considerably from the working environment of 30 years ago: longer hours at work are not unusual, frequent changes in culture and structure are often cited, as well as the loss of lifetime career paths (Cooper & Locke, 2000 in Fotinatos-Ventouratos & Cooper 2005), which all leads to greater presence and levels of stress.

Job stress, in particular, is the inability to cope with the pressures in a job (Rees, 1997), because of a poor fit between someone’s abilities and his/her work requirements and conditions (Holmlund-Rytkönen & Strandvik, 2005). It is a mental and physical condition which affects an individual’s productivity, effectiveness, personal health and quality of work (Comish & Swindle, 1994, 26).

Main components of the work-stress process are potential sources of stress (stressors), factors of individual differences (moderators/mediators), and consequences of stress (strain) (Lu et al., 2003, 481), as figure 1 reveals. Stressors (job-related and extra-organizational) are objective events, stress is the subjective experience of the event, and strain is the poor response to stress. Accordingly, the nature and effects of stress might be best understood by saying that some environmental variables (stressors), when interpreted by the individual (cognitive interpretation), may lead to stress (Dua, 1994, 59).

Several authors attributes the lack of progress in the ares of stress research in organizations to the fact that stress seemed to be related to such a large number of conditions which prevented a systemic focus. (5). Beehr used a very general definitions in which anthing about an organizational role that produces adverses consequences for individual’s was called role stress. They proceeded to the conclusion that a condition termed role overload was viable and this correlated positively with job stress.(6) Stress indicator related to role ambiguity in the study indicated low motivation to work.(7).

Job Performance is defined as the outcomes and accomplishments valued by the organization or system that one works in. Each individual is exposed to a range of stressors both at work and in their personal lives which ultimately affect his or her performance. Pressure at work can be positive leading to increased productivity. However, when this pressure becomes excessive it has a negative impact. The individual perceive themselves as being unable to cope and not to possess the necessary skills to combat their stress. Stress is acknowledged to be one of the main causes of absence from work (Mead, 2000). The occupational stressors can be categorized into four major groups. Firstly, the working conditions, including shift and week-end work, inadequate remuneration, hours of work, discrimination and safety at the work environment. Secondly, relationships at work including quality of relationships with peers, subordinates and supervisors. Thirdly, role conflict and ambiguity including ill-defined role, functions, expectations, and duties. Fourthly, organization structure and climate which includes communication policy and practice, major changes in the workplace, culture of the organization, and lack of participation in decision-making. Another cause is career development including under utilization of skills or failing to reach full potential. Another contributing factor is the nature of the job which might amount to an immense amount of physical and emotional exhaustion (Parikh & Taukari, 2004).

Job performance is the result of three factors working together: skill, effort and the nature of work conditions (Levey, 2001). Skill include knowledge, abilities and competencies the employee brings to the job: effort is the degree of motivation the employee put forth toward getting the job done; and the nature of work conditions is the degree of accommodation of these conditions in facilitating the employee’s productivity.

Several studies have tried to determine the link between stress and job performance. Job satisfaction and job performance are the two main focuses in human resource management researches. Jamal (1984) examined a relationship between job stress and job performance among managers and blue-colla workers. Job stress is defined as individual’s reactions to th characteristics of the work environment that appear threatening to them. Four types of relationship are proposed between job stress and performance:

1. Curvilinear/U-shaped

2. Negative linear,

3. Positive linear, and

4. No relationship between the stess and performance.

The main objective of this research is to identify role of different contributing factors of job stress and to investigate level of stress on those factors among administration employee at Bina Darma University Palembang. And also to find the effect of job stress to job performance. There are different factors of job stress i.e. workload, role conflict, role ambiguity and performance pressure. As the higher education in Palembang has increase tremendously for the past few years, almost higher education are now setting new goal to compete with other universities as well as their academic are involving with the organization goal. Due to competitive pressure from other higher education, Bina Darma University (BDU) force the management, academic staff especially administrtion employee to enhance their service quality. In this department, the staff facing competitive pressure to handle the customer (student) needs to meet the university goal. This may causes the university administration staffs to face plenty of stress and therefore affect their satisfaction and even their physical or mental health.

B. Method Of Study

Sample

A survey instrument in the form of close-ended questionnaire was developed for the purpose of collecting the main data for the study. This study was conducted in a Bina Darma University Palembang. Using the non-probability sampling technique, a total of 42 respondents were selected as a sample of the study from that university. The respondents is administration employee BDU. The actual field survey was conducted over a period one month whereby personal interviews were employed to obtain the required information from the respondents. The reasons of using the personal interview are threefold. Firstly, it allows the interviewer to screen the eligibility of the respondents. Secondly, it also allows a closer supervision and better interaction between the interviewer and respondents in answering the questionnaire. Lastly, the interviewer was able to assist the respondents when they found difficulty in understanding any of the questions in the questionnaire.

The participants were 73.81% female and 26.11% male with mean age of 26 years. Most of them were married ( 35 respondent or 83.33%) and only 7 are single. The average experience of the participants in their present profession was 4.3 years.

Instrument Development

This instrument used in this study is composed of 3 parts. The first part deals with number of demographic questions such as gender, age, marital status, race, and education.

Part 2 includes job stress. Job stress is measured by “Job Stress Questionnaire, JSQ” proposed by Caplan et al. (1975) and Sahu and Gole (2008). This scale included four dimensions from Caplan et al (1975), which are workload, role conflict, role ambiguity and performance pressure which comprised thirteen items. Each of job stressors was measured on a five-point Likert Scale.

Consequently, part 3 conducted job performance which is measured Descriptive Index (JDI) (Smith et al., 1969), a reliable facet measure over time (Kinicki et al., 2002), applicable across a variety of demographic groups (Golembiewski and Yeager, 1978; Jung et al., 1986) and measured on a six point scale wit least satisfied (1) to very satisfied (5).

Procedure and Statistical Methods

The obtained data is analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. The statistical methods involved those of descriptive statistics (Mean, Standard Deviation) for the predictors of Independent Variables of Stress and & inferential statistics (Pearson Correlation & Simple Regression) for the predictors of Dependent Variables of Stress.

C. Result

This section examines result of the study, which are analyses using dscriptive and inferential statistics. Table 2 below shows the mean values of factors that contributed to stress among administration employee. Performance Pressure was identified as the major factors causing stress having mean values 2.67 respectively. But overall stress level of administration employee among Bina Darma University consider moderate.

Table 2

Descriptive Statistics of Employee on Job Stress Scale

Factors

N

Mean

Workload

42

3.27

Role Conflict

42

3.65

Role Ambiguity

42

3.43

Performance Pressure

42

2.47

Overall Mean

3.25

Source: data processed by researcher

Along with job stress level, job performance among administration employee of Bina Darma University also consider moderate. Effectiveness or job quality is one of factor that must to develop performance of the staff. Within Kinerja Karyawan (KIKAR) at Bina darma University forces administration staff to enhance their work performance because it is influence their point at KIKAR.

Table 3

Descriptive Statistics of Employee on Job Performance

Factors

N

Mean

Knowledge

42

3.56

Skill

42

3.63

Attitude/Job Enthusiasm

42

3.57

Effectiveness/Job Quality

42

3.28

Overall Mean

3.51

Source: data processed by researcher

According to matrix in table 4 below, The columns of Role Conflict, Role ambiguity, Performance pressure presented strongly negative connections with all dimensions of job performance. From the table it is clear that there is strog negative correlation between role conflict with all the dimensions of job performance. It is have been found that role conflict has strong negative correlation with knowledge, skill, attitude and overall job performance and this correlation is significant at the significant level of 0.05 respectively using two tailed test.

Table 3

The Correlation between Job Stress on Job Performance (Spearman’s Correlation)

Source: data processed by researcher

Table 4 below shows model summary. The co-efficient of correlation is R= 0.783. The Co-efficient of determination R Square = 0.562 that gives the ratio of explained variation converting the value to a percentage. It is conclude that more than 50% of the variability of performance is accounted for by the variables in this model.

Tabel 4

Model Summary

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of The Estimate

0.783

0.562

0.521

6.6347

Table 5 present result of regression analysis. The regression result show that we could expect a decrease 0.347 in the performance score for every unit increase in workload, assumming that all other variable in the model are held constant. Similarly, decrease of 0.432 in the performance score for every unit increase in role conflict, assumming that all other variable in the model are held constant. In these study, relation were found to exist between job stress and job performance. These included knowledge, skill, job enthusiasm and job quality, which all has negative relations.

Tabel 5

Coefficients

Dependent Variable: Job Performance

Chen et.al (2006) summarize consequences of job stress on the organizational level grouped into two major subgroups:

1) Organizational symptoms – such as discontent and poor morale among the workforce, performance/productivity losses, low quality products and services, poorer relationships with clients, suppliers, partners and regulatory authorities, losing customers, bad publicity, damage to the corporate image and reputation, missed opportunities, disruption to production, high accident and mistakes rates,high labor turnover, loss of valuable staff, increased sick-leave, permanent vacancies, premature retirement, diminished cooperation, poor internal communications, more internal conflicts, and dysfunctional workplace climate.

2) Organizational costs – such as costs of reduced performance/productivity (lack of added value to product and/or service), high replacement costs in connection with labor turnover (increase in recruitment, training and retraining costs), increased sick pay, increased health-care costs and disability payments, higher grievance and litigation/compensation costs, and costs of equipment damage.

As evident from the above, consequences of occupational stress, both on individual and organizational level, are a real cost to organizations. Because of its significant economic implications, stress is not only a huge burden (Ben-Bakr et al., 1995), but one of the fastest growing concerns to contemporary organizations, especially given the high levels of competition and environmental turbulence, which do not allow organizations to bear costs such as those caused by stress (McHugh, 1993).

However, costs which are a consequence of stress are hardly ever assessed or calculated either in human or financial terms. Despite the apparent need for measuring costs of stress, it seems that to date relatively limited number of organizations estimated those enormous indirect costs. Finally, it is important to stress that contrary to popular belief, stress can be associated with both pleasant and unpleasant events, and only becomes problematic when it remains unresolved (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2006, 287). In other words, one could argue that not all stress is dysfunctional and that, in fact, stress is not inherently bad, while a limited amount of stress combined with appropriate responses actually can benefit both the individual and the organization (Chusmir & Franks, 1988, 70). Namely, as low and high stress predict poor performance, and moderate stress predicts maximum performance (Yerkes & Dodson, 1908 in Sharpley et al., 1996), the total elimination of stress should not be aimed at.

According to Levey (2001) Job performance is the result of three factors working together: skill, effort and the nature of work conditions. Skill include knowledge, abilities and competencies the employee brings to the job: effort is the degree of motivation the employee put forth toward getting the job done; and the nature of work conditions is the degree of accommodation of these conditions in facilitating the employee’s productivity.

This finding support the relationship between job stress and work performance that have negative linear relationship. This result also support Kazmi Rubina’s finding (2007) that investigates the effect of job stress on job performance among medical house officers of district abbottabad. The data obtained through questionnaire was analyzed using the statistical methods including descriptive statistics, Spearman’s correlation and multiple regression. The result showed strong support for the hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship between job stress and job performance indicating that there is high job stress in the house officers, resulting in low job performance.

Their study also conclude that correct stress management should start from improved health and good intrapersonal relationships. The prevention and management of workplace stress requires organizational level interventions, because it is the organization that creates the stress. Success in managing and preventing stress will depend on the culture in the organization. A culture of openness and understanding, rather than of criticism, is essential. Those house officers who had high level of job stress had low job performance. All the factors affected male house officers more than the female house officers.

E. Conclusion

The principle purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between job stress and job performance. Base on finding of the study, there are key points that can be used to conclude this research paper. It is very important that the university understand the needs of its employee and provide what is best for the employee.

Over all, the result of the study indicate that there is negative relationship between job stress and job performance. On the basis of the survey result it is seem that lack of role conflict are causes of rising stress levels in BDU administration employee.

To alleviate the negative consequences of job stress administration employee at Bina darma University, policy maker, practicioner and organisational management must concern to the area that have lowest value, which are role overload, role conflict and lack of supervisory support. This can be reach by several program such as stress management program, organise stress management training program and stress management strategies.

References

Antoniou, A.-S., Polychroni, F., Vlachakis, A.-N. (2006), Gender and age differences in occupational stress and professional burnout between primary and high-school teachers in Greece, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7): 682-690

Ben-Bakr, K. A., Al-Shammari, I. S., Jefri, O. A. (1995), Occupational stress in different organizations: a Saudi Arabian survey, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 10(5): 24-28

Blake, C. G., Saleh, S. D., Whorms, H. H. (1996), Stress and satisfaction as a function of technology and supervision type, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 16(5): 64-73

Chen, J.-C., Silverthorne, C., Hung, J.-Y. (2006), Organization communication, job stress, organizational commitment, and job performance of accounting professionals in Taiwan and America, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(4): 242-249

Chusmir, L. H., Franks, V. (1988), Stress and the Woman Manager, Training & Development Journal, 42(10): 66-70

Comish, R., Swindle, B. (1994), Managing stress in the workplace, National Public Accountant, 39(9): 24-28

Cooper, C. L., Marshall, J. (1976), Occupational sources of stress: a review of the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental ill health, Journal of occupational psychology, 49(1): 11-28

Erkutlu, H. V., Chafra, J. (2006), Relationship between leadership power base and job stress of subordinates: example from boutique hotels, Management Research News, 29(5): 285-297

Michie S, Williams S. Reducing psychological ill health and associated sickness absence: A systematic literature review. Occupation Environment Medicine, 2003;60:3–9.

Montgomery, D. C., Blodgett, J. G., Barnes, J. H. (1996), A model of financial securities salespersons’ job stress, The Journal of Services Marketing, 10(3): 21-38

Muhammad Jamal., Preena, Shanaaz. (1999), Job Stress and employee Well Being among airline Personel in Asian Developing Country. 5 (2):121-127

Schabracq, M. J., Cooper, C. L. (2000), The changing nature of work and stress, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(3): 227-241

Shuttleworth, A., (2004), “Managing workplace stress: how training can help, Industrial and Commercial Training, 36(2): 61-65


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jurnal stress1

 

JOB STRESS PHENOMENON AMONG ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE AT BINA DARMA UNIVERSITY PALEMBANG

Dina Mellita

Lecturer at Universitas Bina Darma

Jalan Jenderal Ahmad Yani No.12, Palembang

Pos-el: dmellita@yahoo.com

______________________________________________________________

Abstract:This study conducted to asses the job stress phenomenon of administration employee at Bina darma university Palembang.The determinants of job stress that have been examined under this study measured by ‘Job Stress Questionaire JSQ” proposed by Caplan et al (1975) and Sahu and Gole (2008 ) include management role, relationship with other, workload pressure, homework interface, role ambiguity and performance pressure. Within census to 47 administration employee the result shows that administration employee of Bina darma University considered high. By using descriptive analysis also shows that respondents have problem at workload pressure and performace pressure indicators. From the study, it was conducted that administration employee lack of Lack of supervisory support presented that administration employee are not getting adequate support from superiors in their work accomplishment.

Keywords: Job stress, management role, relationship with other, workload pressure, homework interface, role ambiguity and performance pressure

Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan fenomena stress kerja yang dihadapi pegawai administrasi Universitas Bina Darma Palembang. Indikator variabel stress kerja pada penelitian ini adalah peran manajemen (management role), hubungan kerja di kantor (relationship with other), beban kerja (workload pressure), gangguan di rumah (homework interface), ambiguitas peran (role ambiguity), tekanan kinerja (performance pressure). Dengan menggunakan metode statistik deskriptifmelalui mean, standar deviasi pegawai administrasi Universitas Bina Darma memiliki masalah pada beban kerja dan kurangnya dukungan dari pihak atasan dan rekan kerja dalam mengerjakan tugas-tugas yang diberikan. Untuk itu peran pihak manajemen sangat diperlukan untuk mengadakan program-progam untuk mengelola stress kerja yang dihadapi pekerjanya.

Kata kunci: stress kerja, management role, relationship with other, workload pressure, homework interface, role ambiguity and performance pressure

________________________________________________________________________


A. Introduction

In workplace the productivity can be increase in a variety of ways. A comfortable employee, the theory maintains, can produce more than a counterpart who struggles through the day. A comfortable working environment can do more than make employee happy, it can improve productivity as well. In fact, some studies clain that measures such as raising workplace temperature can have drastic effect on the office productivity.

Job stress is a major hazard for many workers. Increased workloads, downsizing, overtime, hostile work environments, andshiftwork are just a few of the many causes of stressful working conditions. This factsheet addresses some of the causes of workplace stress and solutions for change (Shuttleworth, 2004).

Stress has been defined in different ways over years. Originally, it was conceived as pressure from the environment, then as strain within the person. The generally accepted definition today is one of the interactions between the sistuation and the individual. It is the psychological and physical state that result when the resources of the individual are not sufficient to cope with the demands and pressures of the situation. Thus, stress is more likely in some situation than others in some individual than others (Michie, 2002).

Job (Occupational, work or workplace) stress has become one of the most serious health issues in the modern world (Lu et al., 2003, 479), as it occurs in any job and is even more present than decades ago. Namely, the world of work differs considerably from the working environment of 30 years ago: longer hours at work are not unusual, frequent changes in culture and structure are often cited, as well as the loss of lifetime career paths (Cooper & Locke, 2000 in Fotinatos-Ventouratos & Cooper 2005), which all leads to greater presence and levels of stress.

Job stress, in particular, is the inability to cope with the pressures in a job (Rees, 1997), because of a poor fit between someone’s abilities and his/her work requirements and conditions (Holmlund-Rytkönen & Strandvik, 2005). It is a mental and physical condition which affects an individual’s productivity, effectiveness, personal health and quality of work (Comish & Swindle, 1994, 26).

Previous studies reveal that occupational stress among educators has been researched for a number of decades. As a result of a drastically changed working environment in the teaching profession, stress as a phenomenon has also received attention. Since valuable studies have been undertaken on certain aspects of educator stress, this article attempts to provide an overview of the occurrence of stress among educators. Most of the studies focusing on models of occupational stress and identifies key factors that may have an impact on occupational stress among educators.

Among life situations, the workplace stands out as a potentially important source of stress purely because of the amount of time that is spent in this setting (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2006, 287). Over the years, a large number of workplace stressors of varying degrees of gravity have been identified.

Management role of an organization is one of the aspects that affect work-related stress among workers (Alexandros-Stamatios et. al., 2003).Workers in an organization can face occupational stressthrough the role stress that the management gave. Role stress means anything about an organizational role that produces adverse consequences for the individual (Kahn and Quinn, 1970). Management will have their own role that stands as their related. Role related are concerned with how individuals perceive the expectations other have of them and includes role ambiguity and role conflict (Alexandros-Stamatios et. al., 2003).

Family and work are inter-related and interdependent to the extent that experiences in one area affect the quality of life in the other (Sarantakos, 1996). Home-work interface can be known as the overlap between work and home; the two way relationship involves the source of stress at work affecting home life and vice versa affects of seafaring on home life, demands from work at home, no support from home, absent of stability in home life. It asks about whether home problems are brought to work and work has a negative impact on home life (Alexandros-Stamatios G.A et al., 2003). For example, it questions whether the workers have to take work home, or inability to forget about work when the individual is at home. Home-work interface is important for the workers to reduce the level of work-related stress. According to Lasky (1995) demands associated with family and finances can be a major source of ‘extra-organisational’ stress that can complicate, or even precipitate, work place stress. Russo & Vitaliano (1995) argued that the occurrence of stressors in the workplace either immediately following a period of chronic stress at home, or in conjunction with other major life stressors, is likely to have a marked impact on outcome.

Several studies have highlighted the deleterious consequences of high workloads or work overload. According to Wilkes et al. (1998) work overloads and time constraints were significant contributors to work stress among community nurses. Workload stress can be defined as reluctance to come to work and a feeling of constant pressure (i.e. no effort is enough) accompanied by the general physiological, psychological, and behavioral stress symptoms (Division of Human Resource, 2000). European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 8, Number 1 (2009) Al-Aameri AS. (2003) has mentioned in his studies that one of the six factors of occupational stress is pressure originating from workload. Alexandros-Stamatios G.A. et al. (2003) also argued that “factors intrinsic to the job” means explore workload, variety of tasks and rates of pay.

Rapidly changing global scene is increasing the pressure of workforce to perform maximum output and enhance competitiveness. Indeed, to perform better to their job, there is a requirement for workers to perform multiple tasks in the workplace to keep abreast of changing technologies (Cascio, 1995; Quick, 1997). The ultimate results of this pressure have been found to one of the important factors influencing job stress in their work (Cahn et al., 2000). A study in UK indicated that the majority of the workers were unhappy with the current culture where they were required to work extended hours and cope with large workloads while simultaneously meeting production targets and deadlines (Townley, 2000).

Role ambiguity is another aspect that affects job stress in the workplace. According to Beehr et al. (1976), Cordes & Dougherty (1993), Cooper (1991), Dyer & Quine (1998) and Ursprung (1986) role ambibuity exists when an individual lacks information about the requirements of his or her role, how those role requirements are to be met, and the evaluative procedures available to ensure that the role is being performed successfully. Jackson & Schuler (1985) and Muchinsky (1997) studies found role ambiguity to lead to such negative outcomes as reduces confidence, a sense of hopelessness, anxiety, and depression.

The increasing number of higher education in Palembang has increase tremendously for the past few years. Due to increasing number of higher education in Palembang, university academic staff may face more problems in their job as the managements are facing competitive pressure from other higher education. Almost higher education are now setting new goal to compete with other universities as well as their academic are involving with the organization goal. This may causes the university administration staffs to face plenty of stress and therefore affect their satisfaction and even their physical or mental health.

This study is design to describe job stress phenomenon among administration employee at Bina Darma University

B. Method Of Study

This research is conducted to describes the level of job stress among staff the higher education employee especially at Bina Darma University Palembang. The case study applied in this research. The method chosen to address job stress phenomenon among administration staff of Bina darma University was a questionnaire. Due to number of population, this study conducted on 47 subject belonging to administration staff at Bina Darma University. In this study, the author used primary sources to analyze the data gathered.

The questionnaire was design using combination of quantitative and qualitative question and comprised two distinct section. Section A was design to obtain specific details about stress indicator that was developed by researcher based on the literature review on the relevant topic, there are:

1.Management Role (MR)

2.Relationship with others (RO)

3.Workload Pressure (WP)

4.Homework Interface (HI)

5.Role Ambiguity (RA)

6.Performance Pressure (PP)

Section B was designed to obtain specific details about the respondent/employers or Demographic Information Questionaire (DIG). The variables listed in this section are age group, gender, level of education, years of experience. The study employs the scientific method of using questionnaire to solicit data from respondents. The sampling method that’s used in this research was sensus method. Descriptive statistics will be applied on the data obtained.

To analyse the data, the researcher using descriptive analysis. Descriptive analysis refers to the transformation of raw data that would provide information to describe a set of factors in a situation that will make them easy to understand and interpret. This analysis will be given information through the frequency distribution , central tendency and the dispersion.

D. Survey Result And Interpretation

This section examines result of the study, which is analyses using descriptive statistics. In descriptive statistics, the author explore the data to understand the nature and characteristics of the data.

Table 2

Respondent profiles

Variable

Frequency

percentage

Age groups:

Below 30 years

6

12.76

Between 31-40 years

41

87.23

Gender :

Male

18

38.30

Female

29

61.70

Level of Education:

S1

21

44.68

D3

26

55.31

Source: data processed by researcher

From the Table 2 above, vast majority of the respondents 41 or 87.23 per cent) were in the category of age group between 31 – 40 years.This finding indicates that the majority of them were still in the low management level. From the respondent’s profiles, education level played an important role in the background of the respondent. In this level, almost 60 per cent have midlle education qualification.

The validity of the items shows the correlation mare than 0,244 (r tes > r table). From the table 3 it is shown that all the validity of the item consider valid. The item that highest correlation coefficient is role ambiguity.

Table 3

Summary of Validity Test

Variables

R

Management Role

0,352

Relationship With Other

0,319

Workload Pressure

0,344


Homework Interface

0,376

Role Ambiguity

0,422

Performance Pressure

0,416

Source: data processed by researcher

The internal reliability of the items was verified by computing the cronbaach’s alpha. It is suggested that minimum alpha of 0,6 sifficed for the early stage of research. The cronbach alpha estimated for management role was 0,716, relationship with others 0,809, workload pressure scale was 0,877, homework interface was 0,739, role ambiguity was 0,705, performance pressure was 0,891 and overall job stress scale was 0,790. As the cronbach alpha in this studywere all much higher than 0,6, the construct were therefore deemed to have adequity reliability.

Table 4

Summary of Reliability Test

Variables

Α

Management Role

0,716

Relationship With Other

0,809

Workload Pressure

0,877

Homework Interface

0,739

Role Ambiguity

0,705

Performance Pressure

0,891

Source: data processed by researcher

Table 5shows the mean value of indicators that contributed to stress in different departments. Overall mean for all indicator was 3,90. It is indicate that job stress level among administration staff at bina Darma University is consider high. Workload and performance pressure are identified as the major factors causing stress having mean value 4,68 and 4,23 respectively. Workload as the main source of job stress for administration staff in Bina darma university.

Table 5

Summary of Job Stress

Variables

Mean

SD

Management Role

3,84

1,49

Relationship With Other

3,47

1.84

Workload Pressure

4,68

2,23

Homework Interface

3,52

1,57

Role Ambiguity

3,69

1,68


Performance Pressure

4,23

2,05

Overall mean

3,90

Source: data processed by researcher

It is increasingly important that faculty members perform administrative duties to promote the efficient operation of schools. As a consequence, job stress represents a key contributor to whether such schools operate successfully. Thus, the job stress experienced by academic heads constitutes an important and timely topic. Due to competitive environment in education industry it is important that faculty members perform administrative duties to promote the efficient operation of university. As a consequence, administratve employee as a key contributor to whether such university operate successfully. Thus, this result may cause due to the nature of administrative employee which is dealing with heavy workload and long hour.

Stress produces a range of undesirable, expensive, and debilitating consequences (Ross, 2005), which affect both individuals and organizations. In organizational setting, stress is nowadays becoming a major contributor to health and performance problems of individuals, and unwanted occurrences and costs for organizations.

Consequences of occupational stress can be grouped into those on individual and those on organizational level. On the individual level, there are three main subgroups of strains (Blake et al, 1996):

2)Unwanted feelings and behaviors – such as job dissatisfaction, lower motivation, low employee morale, less organizational commitment, lowered overall quality of work life, absenteeism, turnover, intention to leave the job, lower productivity, decreased quantity and quality of work, inability to make

3)sound decisions, more theft, sabotage and work stoppage, occupational burnout, alienation, and increased smoking and alcohol intake.

4)Physiological diseases (poor physical health) – such as increased blood pressure and pulse rate, cardiovascular diseases, high cholesterol, high blood sugar, insomnia, headaches, infections, skin problems, suppressed immune system, injuries, and fatigue.

5)Psychological diseases (poor emotional (mental) health) – psychological distress, depression, anxiousness, passiveness/aggressiveness, boredom, lose of self-confidence and self-esteem, lose of concentration, feelings of futility, impulsiveness and disregarding of social norms and values, dissatisfaction with job and live, losing of contact with reality, and emotional fatigue.

It is also demonstrate that mean of relationship with others is consider low. This indicates that administration employee are not getting adequate support from the superior in their work accomplishment and dissemination of functional duties. Lower the level support employee obtained from the organisation higher the level of stress experienced by the employees at work.

The highest scale of stress level will have some consequences on organizational level. As Chen et.al (2006) summarize consequences of job stress on the organizational level grouped into two major subgroups:

1)Organizational symptoms – such as discontent and poor morale among the workforce, performance/productivity losses, low quality products and services, poorer relationships with clients, suppliers, partners and regulatory authorities, losing customers, bad publicity, damage to the corporate image and reputation, missed opportunities, disruption to production, high accident and mistakes rates,high labor turnover, loss of valuable staff, increased sick-leave, permanent vacancies, premature retirement, diminished cooperation, poor internal communications, more internal conflicts, and dysfunctional workplace climate.

2)Organizational costs – such as costs of reduced performance/productivity (lack of added value to product and/or service), high replacement costs in connection with labor turnover (increase in recruitment, training and retraining costs), increased sick pay, increased health-care costs and disability payments, higher grievance and litigation/compensation costs, and costs of equipment damage.

As evident from the above, consequences of occupational stress, both on individual and organizational level, are a real cost to organizations. Because of its significant economic implications, stress is not only a huge burden (Ben-Bakr et al., 1995), but one of the fastest growing concerns to contemporary organizations, especially given the high levels of competition and environmental turbulence, which do not allow organizations to bear costs such as those caused by stress (McHugh, 1993).

However, costs which are a consequence of stress are hardly ever assessed or calculated either in human or financial terms. Despite the apparent need for measuring costs of stress, it seems that to date relatively limited number of organizations estimated those enormous indirect costs.

Finally, it is important to stress that contrary to popular belief, stress can be associated with both pleasant and unpleasant events, and only becomes problematic when it remains unresolved (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2006, 287). In other words, one could argue that not all stress is dysfunctional and that, in fact, stress is not inherently bad, while a limited amount of stress combined with appropriate responses actually can benefit both the individual and the organization (Chusmir & Franks, 1988, 70). Namely, as low and high stress predict poor performance, and moderate stress predicts maximum performance (Yerkes & Dodson, 1908 in Sharpley et al., 1996), the total elimination of stress should not be aimed at.

E. Conclusion

The result tend to suggest that administration employee of Bina Darma University share a basic commitment to the job stress management. Clearly from the data, it si conclude that:

1)Over all job stress phenomenon among administration employee at Bina Darma University considered high. This means, employee have some problem in stress in workplace especially in workload pressure and performance pressure.

2)This study indicates that the employee have problem with relationship with other.Lack of supervisory support presented that administration employee are not getting adequate support from superiors in their work accomplishment

F. Recommendation

The present findings indicate that employee of Bina darma University reported a relative higher stress due to high on workload pressure and performance pressure. This suggest that management has this key issues in maintain stress level of the employee.

To alleviate the negative consequences of job stress administration employee at Bina darma University, policy maker, practicioner and organisational management must concern to the area that have lowest value, which are workload pressure, performance pressure and relationship with other.

References

Antoniou, A.-S., Polychroni, F., Vlachakis, A.-N. (2006), Gender and age differences in occupational stress and professional burnout between primary and high-school teachers in Greece, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7): 682-690

Ben-Bakr, K. A., Al-Shammari, I. S., Jefri, O. A. (1995), Occupational stress in different organizations: a Saudi Arabian survey, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 10(5): 24-28 (hal 6)

Blake, C. G., Saleh, S. D., Whorms, H. H. (1996), Stress and satisfaction as a function of technology and supervision type, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 16(5): 64-73 (ada di bwh table 1 hal 4)

Chen, J.-C., Silverthorne, C., Hung, J.-Y. (2006), Organization communication, job stress, organizational commitment, and job performance of accounting professionals in Taiwan and America, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(4): 242-249 (ada di hal 5)

Chusmir, L. H., Franks, V. (1988), Stress and the Woman Manager, Training & Development Journal, 42(10): 66-70 (ada hal6)

Comish, R., Swindle, B. (1994), Managing stress in the workplace, National Public Accountant, 39(9): 24-28 (ada di hal 3)

Cooper, C. L., Marshall, J. (1976), Occupational sources of stress: a review of the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental ill health, Journal of occupational psychology, 49(1): 11-28 (cb ayuk lihat di table 1 hal4)

Fulcheri, M., Barzega, G., Maina, G., Novara, F., Ravizza, L. (1995), Stress and managerial work: organizational culture and technological changes: a clinical study, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 10(4): 3-8

Fotinatos-Ventouratos, R., Cooper, C. (2005), The role of gender and social class in work stress, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(1): 14-23

Montgomery, D. C., Blodgett, J. G., Barnes, J. H. (1996), A model of financial securities salespersons’ job stress, The Journal of Services Marketing, 10(3): 21-38

Murphy, L. R. (1995), Managing job stress – An employee assistance/human resource management partnership, Personnel Review, 24(1): 41-50

Schabracq, M. J., Cooper, C. L. (2000), The changing nature of work and stress, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(3): 227-241

Sharpley, C. F., Reynolds, R., Acosta, A., Dua, J. K. (1996), The presence, nature and effects of job stress on physical and psychological health at a large Australian university, Journal of Educational Administration, 34(4): 73-86



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Impact Job Stress On Performance Among Administration Employee At Bina Darma University Palembang

Impact Job Stress On Performance Among Administration Employee At Bina Darma University Palembang

 

 

Dina Mellita

 

Abstrak

 

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan pengaruh stress kerja terhadap Prestasi Kerja pegawai administrasi Universitas Bina Darma Palembang. Indikator variabel stress kerja pada penelitian ini adalah beban kerja (workload), konflik peran (role conflict), ambiguitas peran(role ambiguity) dan tekanan prestasi (pressure performance). Dengan menggunakan metode statistik deskriptif  melalui mean, standar deviasi dan uji t, pegawai administrasi Universitas Bina Darma memiliki masalah pada role conflict (konflik peran) yaitu adanya ketidaksesuaian antar pegawai administrasi dalam memahami tugas dan wewenangnya.  Dari hari regresi, terlihat stress kerja memiliki pengaruh negatif terhadap prestasi kerja karyawan. Untuk itu peran pihak manajemen sangat diperlukan untuk mengadakan program-progam untuk mengelola stress kerja yang dihadapi pekerjanya.

 

Kata kunci: stress kerja, role conflict, role overload, lack of supervisory

 

 

A. Introduction

 

            The higher education in Palembang has increase tremendously for the past few years. Almost higher education are now setting new goal to compete with other universities as well as their academic are involving with the organization goal. Due to competitive pressure from other higher education, Bina Darma University (BDU) force the management, academic staff especially administrtion employee to enhance their service quality. In this department, the staff facing competitive pressure to handle the customer (student) needs to meet the university goal. This may causes the university administration staffs to face plenty of stress and therefore affect their satisfaction and even their physical or mental health.

From the perspective of jobplace, the job-related stress can be defined as the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them at work (HSE, 2008). According to NIOSH (1999), the job stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker.

Jobplace, Workplace stress or stress is not necessarily a negative phenomenon and it would therefore be a mistake to concentrate only on its pathological effects (ILO, 2001). In fact, the stress is a normal affair in life (Ahmad Shukri, 2007). Therefore, a moderate level of stress is necessary to be an important motivated factor for individuals, and without some pressures, life would become boring and without purpose (Ornelas, 2003). Besides, a moderate level of stress can be instrumental in achieving a dynamic adaptation to new situations (ILO, 2001). However, stress has a very high cost for individuals, companies and organizations if the stress is gradually increased (ILO, 2001).

Several authors attributes the lack of progress in the ares of stress research in organizations to the fact that stress seemed to be related to such a large number of conditions which prevented a systemic focus. (5). Beehr used a very general definitions in which anthing about an organizational role that produces adverses consequences for individual’s was called role stress. They proceeded to the conclusion that a condition termed role overload was viable and this correlated positively with job stress.(6)  Stress indicator related to role ambiguity in the study indicated low motivation to work.(7).

Job Performance is defined as the outcomes and accomplishments valued by the organization or system that one works in. Each individual is exposed to a range of stressors both at work and in their personal lives which ultimately affect his or her performance. Pressure at work can be positive leading to increased productivity. However, when this pressure becomes excessive it has a negative impact. The individual perceive themselves as being unable to cope and not to possess the necessary skills to combat their stress. Stress is acknowledged to be one of the main causes of absence from work (Mead, 2000). The occupational stressors can be categorized into four major groups. Firstly, the working conditions, including shift and week-end work, inadequate remuneration, hours of work, discrimination and safety at the work environment. Secondly, relationships at work including quality of relationships with peers, subordinates and supervisors. Thirdly, role conflict and ambiguity including ill-defined role, functions, expectations, and duties. Fourthly, organization structure and climate which includes communication policy and practice, major changes in the workplace, culture of the organization, and lack of participation in decision-making. Another cause is career development including under utilization of skills or failing to reach full potential. Another contributing factor is the nature of the job which might  amount to an immense amount of physical and emotional exhaustion (Parikh & Taukari, 2004).

The main objective of this research is to identify role of different contributing factors of job stress and to investigate level of stress on those factors among administration employee at Bina Darma University Palembang. And also to find the effect of job stress to job performance. There are different factors of job stress i.e. workload, role conflict, role ambiguity and performance pressure.

 

 

B. Literature Review

 

Definition of Job Stress

 

            Stress has been defined in different ways over years. Originally, it was conceived as pressure from the environment, then as strain within the person. The generally accepted definition today is one of the interactions between the sistuation and the individual. It is the psychological and physical state that result when the resources of the individual are not sufficient to cope with the demands and pressures of the situation. Thus, stress is more likely in some situation than others in some individual than others (Michie, 2002).

Job (Occupational, work or workplace) stress has become one of the most serious health issues in the modern world (Lu et al., 2003, 479), as it occurs in any job and is even more present than decades ago. Namely, the world of work differs considerably from the working environment of 30 years ago: longer hours at work are not unusual, frequent changes in culture and structure are often cited, as well as the loss of lifetime career paths (Cooper & Locke, 2000 in Fotinatos-Ventouratos & Cooper 2005), which all leads to greater presence and levels of stress.

Job stress, in particular, is the inability to cope with the pressures in a job (Rees, 1997), because of a poor fit between someone’s abilities and his/her work requirements and conditions (Holmlund-Rytkönen & Strandvik, 2005). It is a mental and physical condition which affects an individual’s productivity, effectiveness, personal health and quality of work (Comish & Swindle, 1994, 26).

Main components of the work-stress process are potential sources of stress (stressors), factors of individual differences (moderators/mediators), and consequences of stress (strain) (Lu et al., 2003, 481), as figure 1 reveals. Stressors (job-related and extra-organizational) are objective events, stress is the subjective experience of the event, and strain is the poor response to stress. Accordingly, the nature and effects of stress might be best understood by saying that some environmental variables (stressors), when interpreted by the individual (cognitive interpretation), may lead to stress (Dua, 1994, 59).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1

A Model of Stress At Work

 

 

Source Of Stress At Work

 

Intrinsic to Job

Poor Physical Working Condition

Work Overload

Time Pressures

Physical Degree, etc

 

Role in Organization

Role Ambiguity

Role Conflict

Conflicts are Organizational Boundaries

(Internal&external),etc

 

Career Development

Overpromotion\

Underpromotion

Lack of Job Security

Thwarted ambition, etc

 

Relationship at Work

Poor relations with boss, subordinates or colleagues

Difficulties in delegating responsibility,etc

 

Organizational Structure and Climate

Little or no participation in decision making

Restrictions on behaviour (budget,etc)

Office politics

Lack of effective consultation,etc

 

The Individual

Level of anxiety

Level of neuroticism

Tolerance for ambiguity

Type A A behavioral pattern

Diastolic Blood Pressure

Cholesterole Level

Heart rate

Smoking

Depresive mood

Escapist drinking

Job satisfaction

Reduced aspiration,etc

Individual Chracteristic

Symptoms of occupational ill health

Disease

 

 

 

 

 

 

           

Extra-Organizational Source of Stress

Family Problem

Life Crises

Financial Difficulties,etc

Coronary heart disease

Mental ill health

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Cooper, C.L., Marshall, J (1976) Occupational sources of stress: a review of the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental ill health, Journal of Occupational psychology, vol. 49, No. 1, pp.12

 

 

Sources of Job Stress

 

Among life situations, the workplace stands out as a potentially important source of stress purely because of the amount of time that is spent in this setting (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2006, 287). Over the years, a large number of workplace stressors of varying degrees of gravity have been identified.

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1

Previous Studies on Sources of Job Stress

 

Hurrel et.al (1988 in Murphy, 1995)

Burke (1988 in Lu et. al 2003)

Copper et.al (1988 in Lu et.al 2003)

Antoniou et al. (2006)

1)       Organizational practices (performance reward systems, supervisory practices, promotion opportunities)

2)       Job/task features (workload, workpace, autonomy)

3)       Organizational culture/climate (employee value, personal growth, integrity)

4)       Interpersonal relationships (supervisors, coworkers, customers), and

5)       Employee personal characteristics (personality traits, family relationships, coping skills).

 

1)       Physical environment

2)       Role stressors,

3)       Organizational structure and job characteristics,

4)       Relationships with others,

5)       Career development, and

6)       Work-family conflict,

 

1)     Factors intrinsic to the job,

2)     Management role,

3)     Relationship with others,

4)     Career and achievement,

5)     Organizational structure and climate, and

6)     Home/work interface. More simply,

 

1)Exogenous (i.e. unfavorable occupational conditions, excessive workload, lack of collaboration, etc.)

2)Endogenous pressures (i.e. individual personality characteristics, etc.).

 

Compiled using: Cooper & Marshall (1976); Burke (1988) in Lu et al. (2003); Chusmir & Franks (1988); Hurrell et al. (1988) in Murphy (1995); Jamal (1990) in Montgomery et al. (1996); McHugh (1993); Dua (1994); Fulcheri et al. (1995); Murphy (1995); Blake et al. (1996); Montgomery et al. (1996); Rees (1997); Schabracq & Cooper (2000); Antoniou et al. (2006)

 

When we add the complexity and turbulence of contemporary business environment and organizational life, altogether, causes of occupational stress can be grouped into two main groups: (1) jobrelated stressors, with three major subgroups – environment specific, organization specific, and job specific stressors, and (2) individual-related stressors, which can be either a consequence of individual characteristics or a consequence of individual life circumstances.

 

 

Link Between Job Stress and Job Perfomance

 

            Job performance is the result of three factors working together: skill, effort and the nature of work conditions (Levey, 2001). Skill include knowledge, abilities and competencies the employee brings to the job: effort is the degree of motivation the employee put forth toward getting the job done; and the nature of work conditions is the degree of accommodation of these conditions in facilitating the employee’s productivity.

Several studies have tried to determine the link between stress and job performance. Job satisfaction and job performance are the two main focuses in human resource management researches. Jamal examined a relationship between job stress and job performance among managers and blue-colla workers. Job stress is defined as individual’s reactions to th characteristics of the work environment that appear threatening to them. Four types of relationship are proposed between job stress and performance:

1.      Curvilinear/U-shaped

2.      Negative linear,

3.      Positive linear, and

4.      No relationship between the stess and performance.

A random sample of 283 blue-collar and 227 managerial workers in a large eastern Canadian firm are surveyed in questionnaires. Measurement is made of variables relating to job stress, job performance, and organizational commitment.  Result show a primarily negative linear relationship between job stress and measures of job performance.Limited support is seen for curvilinear or no relationship. No support is found fo positive.(16).

Meanwhile, Kazmi Rubina (2007) investigate the effect of job stress on job performance among medical house officers of district abbottabad. The data obtained through questionnaire was analyzed using the statistical methods including descriptive statistics, Spearman’s correlation and multiple regression. The result showed strong support for the hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship between job stress and job performance indicating that there is high job stress in the house officers, resulting in low job performance.

Their study also conclude that correct stress management should start from improved health and good intrapersonal relationships. The prevention and management of workplace stress requires organizational level interventions, because it is the organization that creates the stress. Success in managing and preventing stress will depend on the culture in the organization. A culture of openness and understanding, rather than of criticism, is essential. Those house officers who had high level of job stress had low job performance. All the factors affected male house officers more than the female house officers.

      Chen et.al (2006) summarize consequences of job stress on the organizational level grouped into two major subgroups:

1)      Organizational symptoms – such as discontent and poor morale among the workforce, performance/productivity losses, low quality products and services, poorer relationships with clients, suppliers, partners and regulatory authorities, losing customers, bad publicity, damage to the corporate image and reputation, missed opportunities, disruption to production, high accident and mistakes rates,high labor turnover, loss of valuable staff, increased sick-leave, permanent vacancies, premature retirement, diminished cooperation, poor internal communications, more internal conflicts, and dysfunctional workplace climate.

2)      Organizational costs – such as costs of reduced performance/productivity (lack of added value to product and/or service), high replacement costs in connection with labor turnover (increase in recruitment, training and retraining costs), increased sick pay, increased health-care costs and disability payments, higher grievance and litigation/compensation costs, and costs of equipment damage.

As evident from the above, consequences of occupational stress, both on individual and organizational level, are a real cost to organizations. Because of its significant economic implications, stress is not only a huge burden (Ben-Bakr et al., 1995), but one of the fastest growing concerns to contemporary organizations, especially given the high levels of competition and environmental turbulence, which do not allow organizations to bear costs such as those caused by stress (McHugh, 1993).

However, costs which are a consequence of stress are hardly ever assessed or calculated either in human or financial terms. Despite the apparent need for measuring costs of stress, it seems that to date relatively limited number of organizations estimated those enormous indirect costs.

Finally, it is important to stress that contrary to popular belief, stress can be associated with both pleasant and unpleasant events, and only becomes problematic when it remains unresolved (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2006, 287). In other words, one could argue that not all stress is dysfunctional and that, in fact, stress is not inherently bad, while a limited amount of stress combined with appropriate responses actually can benefit both the individual and the organization (Chusmir & Franks, 1988, 70). Namely, as low and high stress predict poor performance, and moderate stress predicts maximum performance (Yerkes & Dodson, 1908 in Sharpley et al., 1996), the total elimination of stress should not be aimed at.

 

 

C.  Method Of Study

 

Sample

 

A survey instrument in the form of close-ended questionnaire was developed for the purpose of collecting the main data for the study. This study was conducted in a Bina Darma University Palembang. Using the non-probability sampling technique, a total of 42 respondents were selected as a sample of the study from that university. The respondents is administration employee BDU. The actual field survey was conducted over a period one month whereby personal interviews were employed to obtain the required information from the respondents. The reasons of using the personal interview are threefold. Firstly, it allows the interviewer to screen the eligibility of the respondents. Secondly, it also allows a closer supervision and better interaction between the interviewer and respondents in answering the questionnaire. Lastly, the interviewer was able to assist the respondents when they found difficulty in understanding any of the questions in the questionnaire.

The participants were 73.81% female and 26.11% male with mean age of 26 years. Most of them were married ( 35 respondent or 83.33%) and only 7 are single. The average experience of the participants in their present profession was 4.3 years.

 

Instrument Development

 

This instrument used in this study is composed of 3 parts. The first part deals with number of demographic questions such as gender, age, marital status, race, and education.

Part 2 includes job stress. Job stress is measured by “Job Stress Questionnaire, JSQ” proposed by Caplan et al. (1975) and Sahu and Gole (2008). This scale included four dimensions from Caplan et al (1975), which are workload, role conflict, role ambiguity and performance pressure which comprised thirteen items. Each of job stressors was measured on a six-point Likert Scale.

            Consequently, part 3 conducted job performance which is measured Descriptive Index (JDI) (Smith et al., 1969), a reliable facet measure over time (Kinicki et al., 2002), applicable across a variety of demographic groups (Golembiewski and Yeager, 1978; Jung et al., 1986) and measured on a six point scale wit least satisfied (1) to very satisfied (6).

 

 

Prosedur and Statistical Methods

 

The obtained data is analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. The statistical methods involved those of descriptive statistics (Mean, Standard Deviation) for the predictors of Independent Variables of Stress and & inferential statistics (Pearson Correlation & Simple Regression) for the predictors of Dependent Variables of Stress.

 

D. Result

 

            This section examines result of the study, which are analyses using dscriptive and inferential statistics. Table 2 below shows the mean values of factors that contributed to stress among administration employee. Role conflict was identified as the major factors causing stress having mean values 18.27 respectively..

 

Table 2

 

Descriptive Statistics of Employee on Job Stress Scale

 

Factors

N

Mean

SD

Workload

42

7.43

2.93

Role Conflict

42

18.27

3.06

Role Ambiguity

42

11.06

4.95

Performance Pressure

42

9.85

3.10

                            Source: data processed by researcher

                       ** Indicates significance at 0,01 level

 

            According to matrix in table 3 below, The columns of Role Conflict, Role ambiguity, Performance pressure presented strongly negative connections with all dimensions of job performance. From the table it is clear that there is strog negative correlation between role conflict with all the dimensions of job performance. It is have been found that role conflict has strong negative correlation with knowledge, skill, attitude and overall job performance and this correlation is significant at the significant level of 0.05 respectively using two tailed test.

           

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3

 

The Correlation between Job Stress on Job Performance (Spearman’s Correlation)

 

 

 

Workload

Role Conflict

Role Ambiguity

Performance Pressure

Overall Job Stress

Knowledge

0.063

-0.392

-0.283

-0.541

-0.639

Skills

-0.326

-0.328

-0.370

-0.485

-0.781

Attitude/Job Enthusiasm

-0.125

-0,581

-0.460

-0,511

-0.511

 

Effectiveness/Job Quality

-0.418

-0.616

-0.434

-0.637

-0.554

Overall Job Performance

-0.022

-0.637

-0.331

-0.631

-0.631

Source: data processed by researcher

 

 

            Table 4 below shows model summary. The co-efficient of correlation is R= 0.783. The Co-efficient of determination R Square = 0.562 that gives the ratio of explained variation converting the value to a percentage. It is conclude that more than 50% of the variability of performance is accounted for by the variables in this model.

 

Tabel 4

 

Model Summary

 

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of The Estimate

0.783

0.562

0.521

6.6347

 

 

 

            Table 5 present result of regression analysis. The regression result show that we could expect a decrease 0.347 in the performance score for every unit increase in workload, assumming that all other variable in the model are held constant. Similarly, decrease of 0.432 in the performance score for every unit increase in role conflict, assumming that all other variable in the model are held constant. In these study, relation were found to exist between job stress and job performance. These included knowledge, skill, job enthusiasm and job quality, which all has negative relations.

 

 

Tabel 5

Coefficients

 

Coefficients

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardize Coefficients

T

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

Constant

33.264

15.534

 

1.764

.000

Workload

-0.347

0.064-

-0.312

-2.833

.001

Role Conflict

-0.423

0.083

-0.396

-3.701

.001

Role Ambiguity

0.313

0.046

-0.401

-3.432

.001

Dependent Variable: Job Performance

 

 

E. Conclusion

 

            The principle purpose of this study was t investigate relationship between job stress and job performance. Base on finding of the study, there are key points that can be used to conclude this research paper. It is very important that the university understand the needs of its employee and provide what is best for the employee.

Over all, the result of the study indicate that there is negative relationship between job stress and job performance. On the basis of the survey result it is seen that lack of role conflict are causes of rising stress levels in BDU administration employee.

            To alleviate the negative consequences of job stress administration employee at Bina darma University, policy maker, practicioner and organisational management must concern to the area that have lowest value, which are role overload, role conflict and lack of supervisory support. This can be reach by several program such as stress management program, organise stress management training program and stress management strategies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Antoniou, A.-S., Polychroni, F., Vlachakis, A.-N. (2006), Gender and age differences in occupational stress and professional burnout between primary and high-school teachers in Greece, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7): 682-690

 

Ben-Bakr, K. A., Al-Shammari, I. S., Jefri, O. A. (1995), Occupational stress in different organizations: a Saudi Arabian survey, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 10(5): 24-28

 

Blake, C. G., Saleh, S. D., Whorms, H. H. (1996), Stress and satisfaction as a function of technology and supervision type, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 16(5): 64-73

 

Chen, J.-C., Silverthorne, C., Hung, J.-Y. (2006), Organization communication, job stress, organizational commitment, and job performance of accounting professionals in Taiwan and America, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(4): 242-249

 

Chusmir, L. H., Franks, V. (1988), Stress and the Woman Manager, Training & Development Journal, 42(10): 66-70

 

Comish, R., Swindle, B. (1994), Managing stress in the workplace, National Public Accountant, 39(9): 24-28

 

Cooper, C. L., Marshall, J. (1976), Occupational sources of stress: a review of the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental ill health, Journal of occupational psychology, 49(1): 11-28

 

Dua, J. K. (1994), Job stressors and their effects on physical health, emotional health, and job satisfaction in a university, Journal of Educational Administration, 32(1): 59-78

 

Erkutlu, H. V., Chafra, J. (2006), Relationship between leadership power base and job stress of subordinates: example from boutique hotels, Management Research News, 29(5): 285-297

 

Fulcheri, M., Barzega, G., Maina, G., Novara, F., Ravizza, L. (1995), Stress and managerial work: organizational culture and technological changes: a clinical study, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 10(4): 3-8

 

Fotinatos-Ventouratos, R., Cooper, C. (2005), The role of gender and social class in work stress, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(1): 14-23

 

Holmlund-Rytkönen, M., Strandvik, T. (2005), Stress in business relationships, Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 20(1): 12-22

 

Lu., L., Cooper, C. L., Kao, S. –F., Zhou, Y. (2003), Work stress, control beliefs and and well being in Greater China – An exploration of sub culturaldifferences between the PRC and Taiwan, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(6): 479-510

 

McHugh, M. (1993), Stress at work: Do managers really count the costs?, Employee Relations, 15(1): 18-32

 

Michie S, Williams S. Reducing psychological ill health and associated sickness absence: A systematic literature review. Occupation Environment Medicine, 2003;60:3–9.

 

 

Montgomery, D. C., Blodgett, J. G., Barnes, J. H. (1996), A model of financial securities salespersons’ job stress, The Journal of Services Marketing, 10(3): 21-38

 

Murphy, L. R. (1995), Managing job stress – An employee assistance/human resource management partnership, Personnel Review, 24(1): 41-50

 

Rees, W. D. (1997), Managerial stress – dealing with the causes, not the symptoms, Industrial and Commercial Training, 29(2): 35-40

 

Ross, G. F. (2005), Tourism Industry Employee Workstress – A Present and Future Crisis, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 19(2/3): 133-147

 

Schabracq, M. J., Cooper, C. L. (2000), The changing nature of work and stress, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(3): 227-241

 

Sharpley, C. F., Reynolds, R., Acosta, A., Dua, J. K. (1996), The presence, nature and effects of job stress on physical and psychological health at a large Australian university, Journal of Educational Administration, 34(4): 73-86

 

Shuttleworth, A., (2004), “Managing workplace stress: how training can help, Industrial and Commercial Training, 36(2): 61-65

 

 

 

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Penelitian LPPM 2

Impact Job Stress On Performance Among Administration Employee At Bina Darma University Palembang

 

 

Dina Mellita

 

Abstrak

 

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan pengaruh stress kerja terhadap Prestasi Kerja pegawai administrasi Universitas Bina Darma Palembang. Indikator variabel stress kerja pada penelitian ini adalah beban kerja (workload), konflik peran (role conflict), ambiguitas peran(role ambiguity) dan tekanan prestasi (pressure performance). Dengan menggunakan metode statistik deskriptif  melalui mean, standar deviasi dan uji t, pegawai administrasi Universitas Bina Darma memiliki masalah pada role conflict (konflik peran) yaitu adanya ketidaksesuaian antar pegawai administrasi dalam memahami tugas dan wewenangnya.  Dari hari regresi, terlihat stress kerja memiliki pengaruh negatif terhadap prestasi kerja karyawan. Untuk itu peran pihak manajemen sangat diperlukan untuk mengadakan program-progam untuk mengelola stress kerja yang dihadapi pekerjanya.

 

Kata kunci: stress kerja, role conflict, role overload, lack of supervisory

 

 

A. Introduction

 

            The higher education in Palembang has increase tremendously for the past few years. Almost higher education are now setting new goal to compete with other universities as well as their academic are involving with the organization goal. Due to competitive pressure from other higher education, Bina Darma University (BDU) force the management, academic staff especially administrtion employee to enhance their service quality. In this department, the staff facing competitive pressure to handle the customer (student) needs to meet the university goal. This may causes the university administration staffs to face plenty of stress and therefore affect their satisfaction and even their physical or mental health.

From the perspective of jobplace, the job-related stress can be defined as the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them at work (HSE, 2008). According to NIOSH (1999), the job stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker.

Jobplace, Workplace stress or stress is not necessarily a negative phenomenon and it would therefore be a mistake to concentrate only on its pathological effects (ILO, 2001). In fact, the stress is a normal affair in life (Ahmad Shukri, 2007). Therefore, a moderate level of stress is necessary to be an important motivated factor for individuals, and without some pressures, life would become boring and without purpose (Ornelas, 2003). Besides, a moderate level of stress can be instrumental in achieving a dynamic adaptation to new situations (ILO, 2001). However, stress has a very high cost for individuals, companies and organizations if the stress is gradually increased (ILO, 2001).

Several authors attributes the lack of progress in the ares of stress research in organizations to the fact that stress seemed to be related to such a large number of conditions which prevented a systemic focus. (5). Beehr used a very general definitions in which anthing about an organizational role that produces adverses consequences for individual’s was called role stress. They proceeded to the conclusion that a condition termed role overload was viable and this correlated positively with job stress.(6)  Stress indicator related to role ambiguity in the study indicated low motivation to work.(7).

Job Performance is defined as the outcomes and accomplishments valued by the organization or system that one works in. Each individual is exposed to a range of stressors both at work and in their personal lives which ultimately affect his or her performance. Pressure at work can be positive leading to increased productivity. However, when this pressure becomes excessive it has a negative impact. The individual perceive themselves as being unable to cope and not to possess the necessary skills to combat their stress. Stress is acknowledged to be one of the main causes of absence from work (Mead, 2000). The occupational stressors can be categorized into four major groups. Firstly, the working conditions, including shift and week-end work, inadequate remuneration, hours of work, discrimination and safety at the work environment. Secondly, relationships at work including quality of relationships with peers, subordinates and supervisors. Thirdly, role conflict and ambiguity including ill-defined role, functions, expectations, and duties. Fourthly, organization structure and climate which includes communication policy and practice, major changes in the workplace, culture of the organization, and lack of participation in decision-making. Another cause is career development including under utilization of skills or failing to reach full potential. Another contributing factor is the nature of the job which might  amount to an immense amount of physical and emotional exhaustion (Parikh & Taukari, 2004).

The main objective of this research is to identify role of different contributing factors of job stress and to investigate level of stress on those factors among administration employee at Bina Darma University Palembang. And also to find the effect of job stress to job performance. There are different factors of job stress i.e. workload, role conflict, role ambiguity and performance pressure.

 

 

B. Literature Review

 

Definition of Job Stress

 

            Stress has been defined in different ways over years. Originally, it was conceived as pressure from the environment, then as strain within the person. The generally accepted definition today is one of the interactions between the sistuation and the individual. It is the psychological and physical state that result when the resources of the individual are not sufficient to cope with the demands and pressures of the situation. Thus, stress is more likely in some situation than others in some individual than others (Michie, 2002).

Job (Occupational, work or workplace) stress has become one of the most serious health issues in the modern world (Lu et al., 2003, 479), as it occurs in any job and is even more present than decades ago. Namely, the world of work differs considerably from the working environment of 30 years ago: longer hours at work are not unusual, frequent changes in culture and structure are often cited, as well as the loss of lifetime career paths (Cooper & Locke, 2000 in Fotinatos-Ventouratos & Cooper 2005), which all leads to greater presence and levels of stress.

Job stress, in particular, is the inability to cope with the pressures in a job (Rees, 1997), because of a poor fit between someone’s abilities and his/her work requirements and conditions (Holmlund-Rytkönen & Strandvik, 2005). It is a mental and physical condition which affects an individual’s productivity, effectiveness, personal health and quality of work (Comish & Swindle, 1994, 26).

Main components of the work-stress process are potential sources of stress (stressors), factors of individual differences (moderators/mediators), and consequences of stress (strain) (Lu et al., 2003, 481), as figure 1 reveals. Stressors (job-related and extra-organizational) are objective events, stress is the subjective experience of the event, and strain is the poor response to stress. Accordingly, the nature and effects of stress might be best understood by saying that some environmental variables (stressors), when interpreted by the individual (cognitive interpretation), may lead to stress (Dua, 1994, 59).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1

A Model of Stress At Work

 

 

Source Of Stress At Work

 

Intrinsic to Job

Poor Physical Working Condition

Work Overload

Time Pressures

Physical Degree, etc

 

Role in Organization

Role Ambiguity

Role Conflict

Conflicts are Organizational Boundaries

(Internal&external),etc

 

Career Development

Overpromotion\

Underpromotion

Lack of Job Security

Thwarted ambition, etc

 

Relationship at Work

Poor relations with boss, subordinates or colleagues

Difficulties in delegating responsibility,etc

 

Organizational Structure and Climate

Little or no participation in decision making

Restrictions on behaviour (budget,etc)

Office politics

Lack of effective consultation,etc

 

The Individual

Level of anxiety

Level of neuroticism

Tolerance for ambiguity

Type A A behavioral pattern

Diastolic Blood Pressure

Cholesterole Level

Heart rate

Smoking

Depresive mood

Escapist drinking

Job satisfaction

Reduced aspiration,etc

Individual Chracteristic

Symptoms of occupational ill health

Disease

 

 

 

 

 


           

Extra-Organizational Source of Stress

Family Problem

Life Crises

Financial Difficulties,etc

Coronary heart disease

Mental ill health

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Source: Cooper, C.L., Marshall, J (1976) Occupational sources of stress: a review of the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental ill health, Journal of Occupational psychology, vol. 49, No. 1, pp.12

 

 

Sources of Job Stress

 

Among life situations, the workplace stands out as a potentially important source of stress purely because of the amount of time that is spent in this setting (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2006, 287). Over the years, a large number of workplace stressors of varying degrees of gravity have been identified.

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1

Previous Studies on Sources of Job Stress

 

Hurrel et.al (1988 in Murphy, 1995)

Burke (1988 in Lu et. al 2003)

Copper et.al (1988 in Lu et.al 2003)

Antoniou et al. (2006)

1)       Organizational practices (performance reward systems, supervisory practices, promotion opportunities)

2)       Job/task features (workload, workpace, autonomy)

3)       Organizational culture/climate (employee value, personal growth, integrity)

4)       Interpersonal relationships (supervisors, coworkers, customers), and

5)       Employee personal characteristics (personality traits, family relationships, coping skills).

 

1)       Physical environment

2)       Role stressors,

3)       Organizational structure and job characteristics,

4)       Relationships with others,

5)       Career development, and

6)       Work-family conflict,

 

1)     Factors intrinsic to the job,

2)     Management role,

3)     Relationship with others,

4)     Career and achievement,

5)     Organizational structure and climate, and

6)     Home/work interface. More simply,

 

1) Exogenous (i.e. unfavorable occupational conditions, excessive workload, lack of collaboration, etc.)

2) Endogenous pressures (i.e. individual personality characteristics, etc.).

 

Compiled using: Cooper & Marshall (1976); Burke (1988) in Lu et al. (2003); Chusmir & Franks (1988); Hurrell et al. (1988) in Murphy (1995); Jamal (1990) in Montgomery et al. (1996); McHugh (1993); Dua (1994); Fulcheri et al. (1995); Murphy (1995); Blake et al. (1996); Montgomery et al. (1996); Rees (1997); Schabracq & Cooper (2000); Antoniou et al. (2006)

 

When we add the complexity and turbulence of contemporary business environment and organizational life, altogether, causes of occupational stress can be grouped into two main groups: (1) jobrelated stressors, with three major subgroups – environment specific, organization specific, and job specific stressors, and (2) individual-related stressors, which can be either a consequence of individual characteristics or a consequence of individual life circumstances.

 

 

Link Between Job Stress and Job Perfomance

 

            Job performance is the result of three factors working together: skill, effort and the nature of work conditions (Levey, 2001). Skill include knowledge, abilities and competencies the employee brings to the job: effort is the degree of motivation the employee put forth toward getting the job done; and the nature of work conditions is the degree of accommodation of these conditions in facilitating the employee’s productivity.

Several studies have tried to determine the link between stress and job performance. Job satisfaction and job performance are the two main focuses in human resource management researches. Jamal examined a relationship between job stress and job performance among managers and blue-colla workers. Job stress is defined as individual’s reactions to th characteristics of the work environment that appear threatening to them. Four types of relationship are proposed between job stress and performance:

1.      Curvilinear/U-shaped

2.      Negative linear,

3.      Positive linear, and

4.      No relationship between the stess and performance.

A random sample of 283 blue-collar and 227 managerial workers in a large eastern Canadian firm are surveyed in questionnaires. Measurement is made of variables relating to job stress, job performance, and organizational commitment.  Result show a primarily negative linear relationship between job stress and measures of job performance.Limited support is seen for curvilinear or no relationship. No support is found fo positive.(16).

Meanwhile, Kazmi Rubina (2007) investigate the effect of job stress on job performance among medical house officers of district abbottabad. The data obtained through questionnaire was analyzed using the statistical methods including descriptive statistics, Spearman’s correlation and multiple regression. The result showed strong support for the hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship between job stress and job performance indicating that there is high job stress in the house officers, resulting in low job performance.

Their study also conclude that correct stress management should start from improved health and good intrapersonal relationships. The prevention and management of workplace stress requires organizational level interventions, because it is the organization that creates the stress. Success in managing and preventing stress will depend on the culture in the organization. A culture of openness and understanding, rather than of criticism, is essential. Those house officers who had high level of job stress had low job performance. All the factors affected male house officers more than the female house officers.

      Chen et.al (2006) summarize consequences of job stress on the organizational level grouped into two major subgroups:

1)      Organizational symptoms – such as discontent and poor morale among the workforce, performance/productivity losses, low quality products and services, poorer relationships with clients, suppliers, partners and regulatory authorities, losing customers, bad publicity, damage to the corporate image and reputation, missed opportunities, disruption to production, high accident and mistakes rates,high labor turnover, loss of valuable staff, increased sick-leave, permanent vacancies, premature retirement, diminished cooperation, poor internal communications, more internal conflicts, and dysfunctional workplace climate.

2)      Organizational costs – such as costs of reduced performance/productivity (lack of added value to product and/or service), high replacement costs in connection with labor turnover (increase in recruitment, training and retraining costs), increased sick pay, increased health-care costs and disability payments, higher grievance and litigation/compensation costs, and costs of equipment damage.

As evident from the above, consequences of occupational stress, both on individual and organizational level, are a real cost to organizations. Because of its significant economic implications, stress is not only a huge burden (Ben-Bakr et al., 1995), but one of the fastest growing concerns to contemporary organizations, especially given the high levels of competition and environmental turbulence, which do not allow organizations to bear costs such as those caused by stress (McHugh, 1993).

However, costs which are a consequence of stress are hardly ever assessed or calculated either in human or financial terms. Despite the apparent need for measuring costs of stress, it seems that to date relatively limited number of organizations estimated those enormous indirect costs.

Finally, it is important to stress that contrary to popular belief, stress can be associated with both pleasant and unpleasant events, and only becomes problematic when it remains unresolved (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2006, 287). In other words, one could argue that not all stress is dysfunctional and that, in fact, stress is not inherently bad, while a limited amount of stress combined with appropriate responses actually can benefit both the individual and the organization (Chusmir & Franks, 1988, 70). Namely, as low and high stress predict poor performance, and moderate stress predicts maximum performance (Yerkes & Dodson, 1908 in Sharpley et al., 1996), the total elimination of stress should not be aimed at.

 

 

C.  Method Of Study

 

Sample

 

A survey instrument in the form of close-ended questionnaire was developed for the purpose of collecting the main data for the study. This study was conducted in a Bina Darma University Palembang. Using the non-probability sampling technique, a total of 42 respondents were selected as a sample of the study from that university. The respondents is administration employee BDU. The actual field survey was conducted over a period one month whereby personal interviews were employed to obtain the required information from the respondents. The reasons of using the personal interview are threefold. Firstly, it allows the interviewer to screen the eligibility of the respondents. Secondly, it also allows a closer supervision and better interaction between the interviewer and respondents in answering the questionnaire. Lastly, the interviewer was able to assist the respondents when they found difficulty in understanding any of the questions in the questionnaire.

The participants were 73.81% female and 26.11% male with mean age of 26 years. Most of them were married ( 35 respondent or 83.33%) and only 7 are single. The average experience of the participants in their present profession was 4.3 years.

 

Instrument Development

 

This instrument used in this study is composed of 3 parts. The first part deals with number of demographic questions such as gender, age, marital status, race, and education.

Part 2 includes job stress. Job stress is measured by “Job Stress Questionnaire, JSQ” proposed by Caplan et al. (1975) and Sahu and Gole (2008). This scale included four dimensions from Caplan et al (1975), which are workload, role conflict, role ambiguity and performance pressure which comprised thirteen items. Each of job stressors was measured on a six-point Likert Scale.

            Consequently, part 3 conducted job performance which is measured Descriptive Index (JDI) (Smith et al., 1969), a reliable facet measure over time (Kinicki et al., 2002), applicable across a variety of demographic groups (Golembiewski and Yeager, 1978; Jung et al., 1986) and measured on a six point scale wit least satisfied (1) to very satisfied (6).

 

 

Prosedur and Statistical Methods

 

The obtained data is analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. The statistical methods involved those of descriptive statistics (Mean, Standard Deviation) for the predictors of Independent Variables of Stress and & inferential statistics (Pearson Correlation & Simple Regression) for the predictors of Dependent Variables of Stress.

 

D. Result

 

            This section examines result of the study, which are analyses using dscriptive and inferential statistics. Table 2 below shows the mean values of factors that contributed to stress among administration employee. Role conflict was identified as the major factors causing stress having mean values 18.27 respectively..

 

Table 2

 

Descriptive Statistics of Employee on Job Stress Scale

 

Factors

N

Mean

SD

Workload

42

7.43

2.93

Role Conflict

42

18.27

3.06

Role Ambiguity

42

11.06

4.95

Performance Pressure

42

9.85

3.10

                            Source: data processed by researcher

                       ** Indicates significance at 0,01 level

 

            According to matrix in table 3 below, The columns of Role Conflict, Role ambiguity, Performance pressure presented strongly negative connections with all dimensions of job performance. From the table it is clear that there is strog negative correlation between role conflict with all the dimensions of job performance. It is have been found that role conflict has strong negative correlation with knowledge, skill, attitude and overall job performance and this correlation is significant at the significant level of 0.05 respectively using two tailed test.

           

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3

 

The Correlation between Job Stress on Job Performance (Spearman’s Correlation)

 

 

 

Workload

Role Conflict

Role Ambiguity

Performance Pressure

Overall Job Stress

Knowledge

0.063

-0.392

-0.283

-0.541

-0.639

Skills

-0.326

-0.328

-0.370

-0.485

-0.781

Attitude/Job Enthusiasm

-0.125

-0,581

-0.460

-0,511

-0.511

 

Effectiveness/Job Quality

-0.418

-0.616

-0.434

-0.637

-0.554

Overall Job Performance

-0.022

-0.637

-0.331

-0.631

-0.631

Source: data processed by researcher

 

 

            Table 4 below shows model summary. The co-efficient of correlation is R= 0.783. The Co-efficient of determination R Square = 0.562 that gives the ratio of explained variation converting the value to a percentage. It is conclude that more than 50% of the variability of performance is accounted for by the variables in this model.

 

Tabel 4

 

Model Summary

 

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of The Estimate

0.783

0.562

0.521

6.6347

 

 

 

            Table 5 present result of regression analysis. The regression result show that we could expect a decrease 0.347 in the performance score for every unit increase in workload, assumming that all other variable in the model are held constant. Similarly, decrease of 0.432 in the performance score for every unit increase in role conflict, assumming that all other variable in the model are held constant. In these study, relation were found to exist between job stress and job performance. These included knowledge, skill, job enthusiasm and job quality, which all has negative relations.

 

 

Tabel 5

Coefficients

 

Coefficients

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardize Coefficients

T

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

Constant

33.264

15.534

 

1.764

.000

Workload

-0.347

0.064-

-0.312

-2.833

.001

Role Conflict

-0.423

0.083

-0.396

-3.701

.001

Role Ambiguity

0.313

0.046

-0.401

-3.432

.001

Dependent Variable: Job Performance

 

 

E. Conclusion

 

            The principle purpose of this study was t investigate relationship between job stress and job performance. Base on finding of the study, there are key points that can be used to conclude this research paper. It is very important that the university understand the needs of its employee and provide what is best for the employee.

Over all, the result of the study indicate that there is negative relationship between job stress and job performance. On the basis of the survey result it is seen that lack of role conflict are causes of rising stress levels in BDU administration employee.

            To alleviate the negative consequences of job stress administration employee at Bina darma University, policy maker, practicioner and organisational management must concern to the area that have lowest value, which are role overload, role conflict and lack of supervisory support. This can be reach by several program such as stress management program, organise stress management training program and stress management strategies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

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Blake, C. G., Saleh, S. D., Whorms, H. H. (1996), Stress and satisfaction as a function of technology and supervision type, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 16(5): 64-73

 

Chen, J.-C., Silverthorne, C., Hung, J.-Y. (2006), Organization communication, job stress, organizational commitment, and job performance of accounting professionals in Taiwan and America, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(4): 242-249

 

Chusmir, L. H., Franks, V. (1988), Stress and the Woman Manager, Training & Development Journal, 42(10): 66-70

 

Comish, R., Swindle, B. (1994), Managing stress in the workplace, National Public Accountant, 39(9): 24-28

 

Cooper, C. L., Marshall, J. (1976), Occupational sources of stress: a review of the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental ill health, Journal of occupational psychology, 49(1): 11-28

 

Dua, J. K. (1994), Job stressors and their effects on physical health, emotional health, and job satisfaction in a university, Journal of Educational Administration, 32(1): 59-78

 

Erkutlu, H. V., Chafra, J. (2006), Relationship between leadership power base and job stress of subordinates: example from boutique hotels, Management Research News, 29(5): 285-297

 

Fulcheri, M., Barzega, G., Maina, G., Novara, F., Ravizza, L. (1995), Stress and managerial work: organizational culture and technological changes: a clinical study, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 10(4): 3-8

 

Fotinatos-Ventouratos, R., Cooper, C. (2005), The role of gender and social class in work stress, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(1): 14-23

 

Holmlund-Rytkönen, M., Strandvik, T. (2005), Stress in business relationships, Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 20(1): 12-22

 

Lu., L., Cooper, C. L., Kao, S. –F., Zhou, Y. (2003), Work stress, control beliefs and and well being in Greater China – An exploration of sub culturaldifferences between the PRC and Taiwan, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(6): 479-510

 

McHugh, M. (1993), Stress at work: Do managers really count the costs?, Employee Relations, 15(1): 18-32

 

Michie S, Williams S. Reducing psychological ill health and associated sickness absence: A systematic literature review. Occupation Environment Medicine, 2003;60:3–9.

 

 

Montgomery, D. C., Blodgett, J. G., Barnes, J. H. (1996), A model of financial securities salespersons’ job stress, The Journal of Services Marketing, 10(3): 21-38

 

Murphy, L. R. (1995), Managing job stress – An employee assistance/human resource management partnership, Personnel Review, 24(1): 41-50

 

Rees, W. D. (1997), Managerial stress – dealing with the causes, not the symptoms, Industrial and Commercial Training, 29(2): 35-40

 

Ross, G. F. (2005), Tourism Industry Employee Workstress – A Present and Future Crisis, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 19(2/3): 133-147

 

Schabracq, M. J., Cooper, C. L. (2000), The changing nature of work and stress, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(3): 227-241

 

Sharpley, C. F., Reynolds, R., Acosta, A., Dua, J. K. (1996), The presence, nature and effects of job stress on physical and psychological health at a large Australian university, Journal of Educational Administration, 34(4): 73-86

 

Shuttleworth, A., (2004), “Managing workplace stress: how training can help, Industrial and Commercial Training, 36(2): 61-65

 

 

 

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Metode Pembelajaran Peer Teaching dan Problem Based Learning Untuk Memotivasi Sosialisasi dalam Kelas Pada Pembelajaran Statistika Di Universitas Bina Darma Palembang

Dina Mellita, S.E., M.Ec

Abstract

In this paper, author presented two activities that evoke student involvement in the learning process. They are both easy to implement in a very large class and improve learning. Peer teaching activity simulates the small group exercise section of the course in the better-endowed departments. At the end of an entity which may be a whole part or even a section students are given a worksheet as a practice assignment. This corresponds to the material covered and must be done by students individually outside the class. Its purpose is to facilitate learning and it has no association with grades. Students who can complete the worksheet and feel confident that they can explain it to their peers subscribe as volunteer teachers. Then authors arrange a preparatory meeting in order to organize the teaching teams and answer any questions they may have on the worksheet material. Then, form teams of 2 or 3 members and undertake the task of explaining the worksheet material to a group of their peers. Team members arrange their own meeting in which they agree upon their teaching style and undertake tasks before class begin. Problem based learning method is apply within the peer teaching method. At the end of the semester students are asked to answer a questionnaire also containing questions about the peers teaching activity. The result showed that student have positive perspective concerning this method and the grade distribution for this subject is increase from the previous semester.

Key words: Peer Teaching, Problem Based Learning

1. Pendahuluan

Didalam kurikulum Program Studi Manajemen Universitas Bina Darma (UBD) terdapat satu mata kuliah prasyarat yaitu mata kuliah Statistika (PB.5122). Mata kuliah ini diberikan dalam tujuannya untuk menghasilkan lulusan manajemen yang profesional dan memiliki integritas tinggi, mandiri dan berjiwa kepemimpinan. Mata kuliah ini merupakan mata kuliah wajib yang harus ditempuh oleh mahasiswa jurusan manajemen pada fakultas ekonomi Universitas Bina Darma. Mata kuliah ini dijadikan prasyarat untuk mengambil mata kuliah Manajemen Strategi, Manajemen Keuangan, Manajemen Pemasaran, Studi Kelayakan Bisnis dan Metodelogi Penelitian. Karena dijadikan prasyarat pada mata kuliah inti yang berada pada program studi manajemen, maka mata kuliah ini diberikan pada semester II.

Pada dasarnya mata kuliah ini memberikan pengetahuan kepada mahasiswa bagaimana mengolah informasi statistik untuk memecahkan berbagai permasalahan ekonomi dan keuangan modern. Statistika meliputi pengumpulan data, pengorganisasian data, penyajian data, analisis data, dan interpretasi data (Suharyadi, 2003 hal.3). Berdasarkan pengertian tersebut perkuliahan mata kuliah ini terbagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu statistik deskriptif dan statistik induktif. Materi dari statistik deskriptif dimulai dari pengumpulan data, mengolah dan menyajikan data. berupa tabel, diagram, ukuran dan gambar agar lebih mudah dipahami. Tujuan dari pembelajaran statistik deskriptif ini adalah untuk menyajikan data menjadi informasi yang berguna dalam berbagai bentuk diagram dan gambar. Sedangkan yang menjadi perhatian utama dalam statistika induktif adalah untuk mengetahui suatu hal dari suatu populasi berdasarkan sampel yang ditarik dari populasi tersebut dengan cara penganalisisan dan interpretasi data.

Setiap semesternya, terdapat 3 kelas statistika pada program studi manajemen fakultas ekonomi yang terbagi 100 mahasiswa kelas pagi dan 50 mahasiswa untuk kelas malam. Metode pembelajaran yang selama ini diterapkan menggunakan metode teaching-exercising, dimana dosen menerangkan materi perkuliahan dan mahasiswa hanya mendengarkan dan mencatat materi yang diajarkan kemudian mengerjakan latihan soal. Dengan jumlah mahasiswa yang demikian banyaknya, penggunaan metode yang ada menyebabkan kurangnya motivasi mahasiswa untuk bersosialisasi dalam kelas. Hal ini menyebabkan mahasiswa kurang memiliki kemampuan untuk berdiskusi, menganalisa permasalahan serta mengambil keputusan. Dengan demikian target yang telah ditetapkan pada misis dan kompetensi perkuliahan tidak akan tercapai.

Walaupun dosen telah memberikan kesempatan bagi mahasiswa untuk bertanya dan mengerjakan latihan soal namun hanya sebagian kecil yang menggunakan kesempatan tersebut sehingga pada saat ujian akhir banyak mahasiswa yang mendapat nilai rendah. Permasalahannya terletak pada besarnya volume kelas yang menyebabkan terciptanya gap antara dosen dan mahasiswa. Hal tersebut berakibat pada keengganan mahasiswa untuk bertanya mengenai materi yang ada, sehingga nyata sekali hanya beberapa mahasiswa saja yang aktif sedangkan yang lainnya pasif.

Peirish&Beh (2006, hal. 21) menyatakan bahwa salah satu kunci keberhasilan dalam pembelajaran adalah adanya peningkatan dalam kemampuan memecahkan permasalahan. Salah satu metode pembelajaran untuk meningkatkan kemampuan mahasiswa dalam memecahkan masalah adalah dengan adanya belajar secara berkelompok.

Dengan menggunakan teknik pembelajaran ”incorporating active and cooperative learning”. Reitmeier (2002, hal. 41) mendeteksi kenaikan skor menjadi 85,6% dari 81,5% sebelumnya pada pembelajaran praktkum, kenaikan kemampuan mahasiswa dalam memecahkan masalah materi-materi yang ada, meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara dan menulis kritik.

Dengan menggunakan teknik ’Peer Teaching dan Hands on Simulation” Zacharopoulou (2006) mendeteksi kenaikan kenaikan nilai pada mata kuliah dan matematika dan statistika sebesar 74%, kenaikan kemampuan mahasiswa untuk berkomunikasi di dalam kelas dan meningkatkan jiwa kepemimpinan mahasiswa.

Duffrin (2003, hal. 23) menerapkan PBL pada kuliah Pengantar Ilmu Pangan dan Gizi mengamati adanya peningkatan komunikasi, problem-solving, self-directed learning dan beberapa keterampilan lainnya. Kulih dapat berlangsung dengan sagat menyenangkan dan memberikan pengalaman menantang bagi peserta didik dan dosen.

Berdasarkan hal tersebut, perlu dikermbangkan metode yang inovatif, sederhana, biaya relatif murah dan tingkat keberlanjutannya tinggi, dan memberikan tingkat efektivitas yang maksimal dalam pencapaian target perkuliahan untuk mata kuliah statistika.

Kegiatan ini bertujuan untuk menggabungkan metode pembelajaran ”Peer Teaching dan Problem Base Learning dalam perkuliahan kelas besar untuk memberdayakan kemandirian, kewirausahaan dan Kepemimpinan. Manfaat dari kegiatan ini nantinya adalah dapat digunakan sebagai acuan pelaksanaan kegiatan untuk kelas yang bervolume besar, merupakan media bagi mahasiswa untuk memunculkan sifat-sifat unggulnya dan bagi institusi kegiatan ini merupakan track record yang positif yang perlu dipupuk dan dilestarikan oleh karena dapat digunakan untuk lebih mengeksistensikan institusi ke khalayak umum.

2. Tinjauan Pustaka

Seperti dikemukakan sebelumnya, Peirish&Beh (2006, hal.21) menyatakan bahwa salah satu kunci keberhasilan dalam pembelajaran adalah adanya peningkatan dalam kemampuan mahasiswa dalam memecahkan permasalahan. Salah satu metode pembelajaran untuk meningkatkan kemampuan mahasiswa dalam memecahkan masalah adalah dengan adanya belajar secara berkelompok.

Metode ”Hands-on Activities dan cooperative learning” meningkatkan keterlibatan mahasiswa dan memotivasi suatu kelas untuk bersosialisasi (Johnson and Johnson 1985 hal. 22-66, Giraud 1997, Gourgey 2000). Hal ini disebbkan metode tersebut dapat mengatasi efek negative dari kelas bervolume besar dalam proses pembelajaran. Namun untuk subjek-subjek tertentu, kelas besar memerlukan asisten atau tenaga bantu dalam metode ini (e.g. Magel 1996 hal. 55). Dan pemakaian tenaga asisten tidak dapat dilaksanakan pada semua institusi, oleh karena itu instruktur pada kelas besar menggunakan metode belajar yag standar yaitu dengan ceramah dan pemberian latihan. Penggunaan metode yang standar ini lebih mudah dan aman (Magel 1998 hal. 51-56) dan untuk kelas yang besar hanya metode inilah yang paling memungkinkan.

Cooperative learning activity merupakan suatu strategi dalam pembelajaran dimana mahasiswa belajar dalam suatu kelompok kecil untuk meningkatkan pemahaman mereka akan materi (Cooper, KCKinney dan Robinson 1991 hal. 240). Pada metode ini, beberapa porsi pengajaran misalnya saja pada bagian latihan untuk mahasiswa, kelas yang besar dibagi menjadi beberapa kelompok untuk mengerjakan latihan yang biasanya dilakukan di laboratorium komputer. Kelompok-kelompok ini dibimbing oleh mahasiswa yang lebih senior sehingga mahasiswa lebih mudah untuk bertanya. Laboratorium komputer membuka kesempatan untuk meningkatkan proses pengajaran.

Melalui dua aktivitas yaitu dengan Peer Teaching dan Hands-on Simulation,Zachaopoulou (2006) mengamati peningkatan keterlibatan mahasiswa dalam proses pembelajaran. Metode ini mengatasi masalah ketiadaan asisten dalam pengajaran untuk kelas besar.

Dengan menggunakan teknik pembelajaran ”incorporative learning and cooperative learning” Reitmeier (2002 hal. 42) mendeteksi kenaikan skor menjadi 85,6% dari 81,5%, kenaikan kemampuan peserta didik memecahkan permasalahan, meningkatkan keberanian berbicara dan menulis kritik hasil-hasil penelitian. Duffrin (2003 hal. 23) setelah menerapkan Problem Based Learning mengamati adanya peningkatan komunikasi, problem solving, self-dircted learning, dan beberapa keterampilan lainnya. Selain itu, beliau menemukan bahwa perkuliahan menjadi ”enjoyable” dan memberikan pengalaman yang menantang bagi mahasiswa dan dosen.

Suwedo, Kapti Rahayu, Djagal Wiseso (2004, hal. 96) memadukan metode Problem Based Learning, Kuliah Umum, dan Ceramah pada Kuliah Pengantar Tekhnologi Pertanian menyimpulkan bahwa perpaduan metode tersebut menunujukan peningkatan prestasi akademik serta tingkat kehadiran kuliah dan diskusi dengan sangat signifikan. Metode pembelajaran juga mendorong mahasiswa lebih berani bertanya dan mengemukakan pendapatnya, yang berarti memunculkan jiwa kemandirian, kepemimpinan dan entrepreneurship. Inovasi metode pembelajaran ini juga dapat dapat diimplementasikan untuk kelas besar dengan bantuan asisten yang terlatih.


3. Metode Pengembangan dan Strategi Pelaksanaan

Perkuliahan akan dibagi menjadi dua bagian sesuai materi yang dibahas dalam statistik, yaitu statistik deskriptif dan statistik induktif. Untuk Pembahasan statistik deskriptif dimulai dari awal perkuliahan sampai dengan ujian tengah semester (UTS).

1. Metode ”Peer-Teaching”

Metode ini sangat cocok digunakan untuk kelas yang memiliki mahasiswa dalam jumlah banyak. Aktivitas ini memberikan simulasi pada setiap kelompok untuk melatih setiap sub bab lebih baik.

Aktivitas yang akan dideskripsikan disini merupakan ”cooperative learning activity” yang merupakan suatu strategi dimana mahasiswa bekerjasama dalam kelompok-kelompok kecil dengan tujuan untuk memaksimalkan pembelajaran anggota kelompok yang ada didalamnya (Cooper, KcKinney dan Robinson 1991). Metode tersebut dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan proses belajar.

Metode Peer-Teaching ini diberikan sebagai berikut:

  1. Pada akhir suatu bagian, misalnya akhir suatu bab, mahasiswa diberikan latihan yang berhubungan dengan materi yang telah dibahas sebelumnya. Latihan ini harus dikerjakan oleh mahasiswa diluar jadwal. Materi pada latihan tersebut merupakan pertanyaan yang terstruktur dari prosedur yang mudah sampai prosedur yang bersifat konseptual. Tujuan dari latihan ini adalah untuk memfasilitasi pembelajaran dan tidak berhubungan dengan nilai. Mahasiswa bebas untuk mengerjakan atau tidak mengerjakan latihan tersebut. Mahasiswa yang dapat menyelesaikan latihan tersebut dan merasa percaya diri untuk menerangkan kepada temannya dijadikan volunteers teacher.
  2. Dosen kemudian mengadakan prepatory meeting dengan tujuan untuk menyusun tim pengajar (teaching teams) yang terdiri dari mahasiswa yang bersedia untuk menjadi volunteers teachers kemudian mendiskusikan semua pertanyaan yang timbul dari latihan yang telah mereka kerjakan sebelumnya.
  3. Setelah semua pertanyaan didiskusikan, mahasiswa dari teaching teams masing-masing membentuk suatu kelompok dari diluar teaching teams untuk dijadikan ”peer”.
  4. Mahasiswa dari teaching teams bertindak sebagai instruktur kepada anggotanya untuk menerangkan latihan yang telah diberikan sebelumnya (peer-teaching).
  5. Partisipasi student-students ataupun teacher-student merupakan kegiatan yang bersifat optional dan tidak berhubungan dengan nilai mahasiswa. Penilaian disini berasal dari indiviual assignment ataupun dari hasil ujian.

Esensi dari aktivitas ini adalah untuk mencari tempat dan waktu yang tepat baik untuk prepatory meeting ataupun peer teaching. Namun kuncinya adalah jika mahasiswa yang dijadikan volunteers teachers telah menyelesaikan latihan yang diberikan, maka prepatory meeting tersebut dilakukan dengan efektif tanpa membuang waktu.

Keuntungan untuk mahasiswa yang berperan sebagai mahasiswa adalah remoteness yang menyebabkan mahaiswa enggan untuk bertanya pada kels reguler dapat diminimalisir. Bukan hanya karena adanya jumlah anggota kelompok yang sedikit, adanya kesamaan usia dan gaya diantara peers membuat para anggota kelompok nyaman untuk bertanya mengenai materi yang ada sehingga memudhkan pembelajaran.

Sedangkan untuk mahasiswa yang berperan sebagai teacher adanya metode ini akan semakin meningkatkan pemahaman mahasiswa tersebut akan materi yang ada. Selain itu dengan adanya kompetisi antara kelompok mendorong mahasiswa yang berperan sebagai pengajar akan menngkatkan kualitas kelompoknya.

2 . Metode Problem Based Learning (PBL)

Metode ini disisipkan pada pelaksanaan peer teaching tersebut. Kelompok ”teaching teams” ini pada setiap akhir bab akan mencari data-data statistik yang harus diolah berdasarkan materi yang dibahas. Misalnya setelah mendapat materi mengenai ukuran nilai sentral, setiap kelompok harus mencari data-data ekonomi yang terbaru dan diukur nilai sentralnya kemudian akan dibahas dan hasilnya dibuat laporan tertulis.

4. Hasil Implementasi dan Pembahasan

4.1. Pelaksanaan Perkuliahan

Tingkat kehadiran mahasiswa bervariasi antara 83,27 – 100%. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa semangat, antusias, dan keingintahuan mahasiswa pada metode-metode pengumpulan, penyajian dan pengolahan data serta pengambilan kesimpulan terhadap suatu data sangat besar. Adanya volunteers teacher yang terdiri dari rekan-rekan mahasiswa itu sendiri meningkatkan motivasi mahasiswa lain untuk bertanya mengenai materi yang ada.

Tabel 1 menunnjukkan tanggapan para mahasiswa terhadap perkuliahan yang dismpaikan oleh tim dosen. Dari tabel tersebut terlihat secara umum perkuliahan yang dilakukan oleh dosen dan tim ’volunteers’ telah sesuai dengan perancangan. Rata-rata yang didapat dari tanggapan mahasiswa terhadap nilai perkuliahan adalah 8,26 yang menandakan bahwa perkuliahan yang dilaksanan oleh dosen berserta timnya telah sangat memadai sebagai proses belajar mengajar yang baik.

Tabel 1.

Tanggapan mahasiswa terhadap pelaksanaan perkuliahan

No.

Item Pertanyaan

Nilai

1

Materi perkuliahan disampaikan secara sistematik

8,23

2

Materi perkuliahan sesuai dengan isi standar (silabus)

8,16

3

Dosen menguasai materi perkuliahan

9,20

4

Dosen menunjukkan perhatian jika ada masalah yang disampaikan baik oleh mahasiswa ataupun oleh para volunteer

8,59

5

Tersedia handout sebelum kegiatan perkuliahan

8,33

6

Terlalu banyak tugas individual

6,48

Rata-rata

8,36

Nilai: 10 = sangat setuju; 8 = setuju; 6 = ragu-ragu; 4= tidak setuju; 2= sangat tidak setuju

Namun dari beberapa indikator pelaksanaan perkuliahan diatas, mahasiswa menganggap bahwa perkuliahan terlalu banyak memberikan tugas individual selama kegiatan perkuliahan. Keberatan tersebut mungkin hanya dirasakan secara fisik oleh mahasiswa. Akan tetapi jika dipahami bahwa tugas-tugas tersebut terkait dengan pelaksanaan diskusi kelompok dan manfaat perkuliahan mungkin saja mahasiswa tidak akan mengemukakan keberatan tersebut. Ini terbukti dari jawaban mahasiswa terhadap pernyataan ”saya tidak suka dengan tugas-tugas pada mata kuliah ini” berkisar pada nilai 5, 29 (lihat tabel 4 butir 7) yang menunjukkan ketidaksetujuannya terhadap pernyataan tersebut, atau dengan kata lain mahasiswa menyukai tugas-tugas perkuliahan yang harus dilakukan. Oleh karena itu, untuk perkuliahan yang akan datang bukan berarti menghilangkan tugas-tugas individual melainkan perlu penyesuaian saja.

Berdasarkan evaluasi diri (Tabel 2) terlihat bahwa materi perkuliahan sangat memberi manfaat besar. Mahasiswa setelah mengikuti perkuliahan merasakan memperoleh tambahan pengetahuan yang banyak, mengerti dan memahami bagaimana mengumpulkan, menyajikan dan menganalisa data secara benar, serta memiliki keberanian untuk menanyakan hal-hal yang kurng dimengerti sehingga mendapat penjelasan.

Tabel 2

Tanggapan mahasiswa terhadap manfaat perkuliahan

No.

Pernyataan

% Jumlah mahasiswa

Nilai rata-rata

10

8

6

4

2

1

Saya merasa memperoleh banyak tambahan pengetahuan

36,03

59,31

4,66

8,97

2

Saya telah paham semua isi materi perkuliahan

21,72

70,66

7,62

6,24

3

Saya senang dengan cara pembelajaran yang dilakukan dosen

5,41

56,81

34,39

3,39

7,61

4

Sebelumnya saya tidak tahu ruang lingkup statistika

30,06

40,21

20,26

8,45

1,02

7,35

5

Setelah mengikuti perkuliahan ini, saya menjadi tahu manfaat dari mempelajari statistika

43,67

52,31

4,02

8,73

6

Selama perkuliahan saya pernah bertanya hal yang tidak jelas dari materi perkuliahan

28,41

33,29

25,47

9,76

3,07

7,88

7

Saya tidak suka dengan tugas-tugas statistika

3,61

10,96

45,24

27,80

12,39

5,29

Nilai: 10 sangat setuju; 8 setuju; 6 ragu-ragu; 4 tidak setuju; 2 sangat tidak setuju

4.2. Pelaksanaan Peer Teaching

Metode peer teaching dilaksanakan di luar jadwal kuliah. Mahasiswa dibagi menjadi 8 kelompok, masing-masing beranggotakan 9-10 mahasiswa yang dipandu oleh seorang volunteers teacher. Materi dalam peer teaching ini terdiri atas materi kebidangan dan materi problem based learning. Materi kebidangan bertujuan menjabarkan silabi statistika dengan memberikan contoh-contoh kasus ekonomi dan perbankan. Dengan demikian mahsiswa menjadi paham ruang lingkup statistika. Materi problem based learning, bertujuan untuk menghidupkan berbasis pada ”student centerred learning” untuk mem ”back up” materi perkuliahan. Dengan demikian wawasan statistika tidak hanya dipahami secara teoritis saja melainkan secara nyata melalui studi kasus di lapangan. Materi khusus terdiri dari membuat makalah mengenai data-data ekonomi dan perbankan.

Dalam diskusi kelompok tingkat kehdiran mahasiswa rata-rata 100% setiap kali dilaksanakan yang terlihat dari laporan kehadiran mahasiswa dalam ”peer teaching”. Hal ini meunjukkan betapa menariknya diskusi kelompok yang dijalankan dengan materi yang telah dirancang untuk memberikan wawasan yang luas dan mendalam tentang statistika. Melalui evalusi diri metode peer teaching (Tabel 3) nilai 8 secara umum sudah tercapai meski pun beberapa masih sedikit rendah. Dalam metode peer teaching ini, para mahasiswa secara aktif berpartisipasi dalam kelompoknya masing-masing. Tugas-tugas yang diberikan dirasakan menyenangkan karena mahasiswa menganggap pekerjaan ataupun tugas tersebut tidak memberatkan sementara materi yang didiskusikan sangat menarik.

Tabel 3

Tanggapan mahasiswa terhadap metode peer teaching

No

Item Pertanyaan

Nilai Per Kelompok

Rata-rata

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

1

Saya berpartisipasi aktif dalam kelompok seperti anggota lainnya

7,72

8,37

7,28

7,81

7,28

8,87

8,62

8,51

8,06

2

Tugas yang dibrikan untuk tim tidak memberatkan saya

7,38

7,82

8,91

8,18

7,73

6,97

8,11

6,00

7,64

3

Materi diskusi menarik dan menambah pemahaman saya tentang statistika

8,37

9,18

9,03

9,03

9,09

9,12

9,23

8,13

7,18

4

Para anggota tim dapat menerima dan mempercayai saya

7,87

8,37

7,27

7,55

7,27

9,39

8,44

8,88

8,13

5

Saya banyak berkomunikasi dengan anggota tim dan bersemangat

8,64

7,91

8,37

7,82

7,09

8,03

8,27

8,63

8,11

6

Saya senang bekerja dalam tim

8,64

7,91

8,37

7,82

7,09

8,03

8,37

8,63

8,11

7

Saya merasa para anggota akan senang bekerjsama lagi dengan saya

7,61

8,19

7,27

7,97

6,82

9,52

8,19

7,37

7,94

Nilai: 10 sangat setuju; 8 setuju; 6 ragu-ragu; 4 tidak setuju, 2 sangat tidak setuju

Evaluasi diri diskusi kelompok sekaligus dapat digunakan untuk mengetahui jiwakepemimpinan dn kemandirian sertakemampuan bekerja sebagai tim. Jiwa kepemimpnan ditunjukkan dari kemampuan mahasiswa berkomunikasi dengan anggota timnya (butir 5) dan kesediaan anggota tim untuk bekerja sama selanjutnya (butir 7) serta kepercayaan anggota kelompok terhadap dirinya (butir 4). Nilai pada butir 7 rata-rata adalah 7,94 dan butir 4 adalah 8,13 mengindikasikan bahwa mahasiswa cukup mampu untuk mempengaruhi dan memberi keyakinan pada anggota tim lainnya, dimana hal tersebut menunjukkan ciri dari kepemimpinan. Butir-butir tersebut juga sekaligus menunjukkan kemampuan mahasiswa bekerja dalam tim. Jiwa kemandirian ditunjukkan terutama dari butir 1 yang memiliki nilai cukup tinggi Hal tersebut mencerminkan bahwa mahasiswa berani mengemukakan pendapatnya yang mendorong tumbuhnya jiwa kemandirian.

4.3. Tanggapan Mahasiswa terhadap ”Volunteer Teacher”

Hampir semua VT memperoleh skor rata-rata diatas 8,0 (table 4) dari panilaian mahasiswa. Ini berarti bahwa mahasiswa merasa mendapat bimbingan yaang baik untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan mengenai statistika. Mahasiswa sangat setuju dengan kesiapan dan kinerja VT dalam memotivasi anggota tim untuk ikut berpartisipasi dalam pembelajaran peer teaching.

4.4. Pemberian Tugas Mahasiswa

Selain tugas-tugas yang harus didiskusikan dalam tim, beberapa tugas individual juga diberikan kepada mahasiswa, yaitu tugas yang dikerjakan sendiri-sendiri oleh mahasiswa. Tugas individual terdiri atas browsing data-data statistika mengenai ekonomi dan perbankan yang kemudian diolah dan dianalisa untuk diambil kesimpulan mengenai data tersebut. Tugas ini bertujuan untuk melatih mahasiswa agar dapat melakukan analisa data dan menuangkan keputusannya dalam bentuk resume.

Untuk dapat melksanakan tugas tersebut dengan baik, diberikan panduannya. Dari laporan yang terkumpul tidk adanya kesulitan dari para mahasiswa untuk melaksanakan tugas-tugas tersebut. Semua tugas dilakukan dengan baik sesuai dengan panduan yang diberikan. Dengan demikian dapat diambil kesimpulan mahasiswa kebanyakan sudah menguasai penggunaan internet sehingga potensi ini dimanfaatkan untuk keperluan kegiatan belajar mengajar.

5. Evaluasi Pembelajaran

Evaluasi pembelajaran dilakukan dengan indikator nilai akhir dari perkuliahan. Nilai akhir kuliah statistika merupakan gabungan dari beberapa nilai, yaitu nilai tugas browsing data dari internet yang kemudian diolah dan dan dianalisa kemudian dibuat resume (TM=15%). Nilai presentasi kelompok (UH=15%), nilai ujian tengah semester (UTS=30%) dan nilai ujian akhir semester (UAS=40%). Berdasarkan bobot masing-masing permasalahan yang diberi nilai kemudian digabungkan untuk mendapatkan nilai akhir. Adapun penggabungn nilai dengan formulasi sebagai berikut:

NA=0,15(TM)+0,15(UH)+0,3(UTS)+0,4(UAS)

dimana;

NA = Nilai akhir

TM = Tugas Mandiri dari tugas browsing data

UTS = Ujian tengah semester

UAS = Ujian akhir semester

Setelah dilakukan penilaian semua item, hasil rekapitulasi nilai akhir (NA) diberikan pada tabel berikut.

Tabel 4

Rekapitulasi Nilai akhir mata kuliah Statistika Semester 3 2006/2007

No

Kriteria

Nilai

Jumlah Mahasiswa

Persentase

1

Amat Sangat Baik (Excelent)

A

29

36,71

2

Sangat Baik(very Good)

B

42

53,16

3

Baik (Good)

C

8

10,12

4

Biasa (Fair)

D

0

0

5

Gagal (Fail)

E

0

0

Total

79

100

Sumber: data sudah diolah

Dibandingkan dengan nilai akhir kuliah statistika dua tahun sebelumnya (semester 3 2005/2006 dan semester 3 2004/2005, lihat tabel 3) terlihat bahwa dengan adanya innovasi perkuliahan, yaitu memadukan metode peer teaching dan problem based learning dapat meningkatkan hasil (output) dengan sangat signifikan. Perlu diketahui bahwa perkuliahan sebelumnya hanya menggunakan metode ceramah dan latihan soal saja untuk pelaksanaan perkuliahan.

Tabel 6

Rekapitulasi Nilai akhir Statistika pada semester 3 2004/2005 dan semester 3 2005/2006

No

Kriteria

Nilai

2004/2005

2005/2006

Jml Mhs

%

Jml Mhs

%

1

Amat sangat Baik (Excelent)

A

6

8,11

11

12,94

2

Sangat Baik (Very Good)

B

20

27

19

22,35

3

Baik (Good)

C

38

51,35

51

60

4

Biasa (Fair)

D

10

13,51

4

4,70

5

Gagal (Fail)

E

0

0

0

0

Total

74

100

85

100

Sumber: data sudah diolah

Dari kedua metode yang digunakan, metode peer teaching mendominasi peranan dalam perolehan nilai. Dengan demikian metode perkuliahan ini cocok untuk digunakan untuk kelas besar. Dengan perpaduan metode tersebut selain dapat meningkatkan prestasi akademik, mahasiswa didorongpada karakter mandiri dan jiwa kepemimpinannya untuk lebih menonjol. Dengan kerja tim pada metode peer teaching akan dapat membangun karakter-karakter tersebut karena tim yang dipimpin dengan baik akan meningkatkan kemampuan mahasiswa dalam mengemukakan pendapat dan beragumentasi dengan anggota kelompoknya. Kesalahan dalam berdiskusi dalam suatu kelompok atau tim merupakan semangat untuk mencari kebenaran. Materi diskusi dalam tim jika dicarikan bahan yang tepat dapat membuka wawasan kewirausahaan pada mahasiswa. Materi-materi yang bersifat problem based learning sangat tepat untuk meningkatkan jiwa kewirausahaan. Oleh karena itu, metode ini dapat dilanjutkan untuk mata kuliah yang sama atau diimplementasikan pada pelaksanaan kuliah untuk mata kuliah lain.

6. Hambatan, Kekurangan dan Kemungkinan Perbaikan

Selama pelaksanaan metode ini, hambatan yang dihadapi adalah kurangnya ruangan dengan kapasitas yang kecil untuk melaksanakan diskusi pada tiap tim. Oleh karena itu diperlukan perencanaan jadwal waktu diskusi dan jadwal penggunaan ruangan yang harus dikoordinasikan dengan bagian pengajaran. Untuk mengatasinya, metode pembelajaran dari tahun ke tahun dilaksanakan bervariasi dengan menyesuaikan ketersediaan waktu dan ruang diskusi

7. Kesimpulan

Dari hasil monitoring serta analisis data yang dilakukan, dapat disimpulkan beberapa hal. Prestasi akademik mahasiswa meningkat sangat nyata dari jumlah perolehan nilai A masing-masing 8,11% dan 12,94% dari jumlah mahasiswa dan peserta kuliah pada tahun akademik 2004/2005 dan 2005/2006 menjadi 36,71% pada tahun ajaran 2006/2007. Inovasi pembelajaran juga meningkatkan jumlah nilai B dari masing-masing 27% dan 22,35% pada tahun akademik 2004/2005 dan 2005/2006 menjadi 53,16% pada tahun akademik 2006/2007; sedangkan jumlah perolehan nilai C menurun, nilai D dan E tidak ada pada tahun 2006/2007.

Inovasi pembelajaran dapat memunculkan sifat kemandirian, kepemimpinan dan enterpreneurship pada mahasiswa dan dapat diimplementasikan pada kelas bervolume besar. Selain itu tingkat kehadiran mahasiswa dalam kuliah dan diskusi peer teaching tinggi, dan mahasiswa merasa nyaman selama mengikuti kuliah dan diskusi tim.

Dengan adanya hambatan yang telah diterangkan sebelumnya serta catatan komentar tertulis dari mahasiswa selama pembelajaran, perlu perhatian beberapa hal berikut ini untuk perbaikan. Yaitu perlu perencanaan matang sebelum melaksanakan inovasi pembelajaran mengingat tersedianya fasilitas ruang dan fasilitas pendidikan lainnya yang tersedia yang dapat digunakan terutama untuk pelaksanaan diskusi kelompok.

Daftar Pustaka

Cooper, J., McKinney, M., and Robinson, P (1991), ”Cooperative/Collaborative Learning: Part II”, The Journal of Staff Program and Organizational Development, 9(4), 239-52.

Duffin, M.W., 2003, Integrating Problem Based Learning In an Introductory College Food Science Course, J. Food, Sci. Edu., 2:2-6

Gourgey, A.F. ( 2000), “A Classroom Simulation Based on Political Polling to Help Students Understand Sampling Distributions”, Journal of Statistics Education [On-line], 8(3). www.amstat.org/publications/jse/secure/v8n3/gourgey.cfm

Giraud, G. (1997), “Cooperative Learning and Statistics Instruction”, Journal of Statistics Educatin [On-line], 5(3)

www. amstat.org/publication/jse/y3n3/giraud.html

Johnson,R.T., and Johnson, D.W. (1985), “Student-Student Interactin: Ignored but Powerful”, Journal of Teacher Education, 34(36), 22-66.

Magel, R. (1996), “Increasing Student Participation in Large Introductory Statistics Classes” The American Statistician, 50(1), 51-56.

Magel, R. (1998), “Using Cooperative Learning in Large Introductory Statistics Class”. Journal of Statistics Education [On-line], 6(3).

www. Amstat.org/publication jse/v6n3/magel.html.

Peiris, S. and Beh, E. (2006), Where statistics teaching can go wrong, CAL-laborate, UniServe Science, 21-23 (ISSN 1443-4482 or 1443-4490).

Reitmeier. C.A., 2002., Active Learning in The Experimental Study of Food, J. Food Sci. Edu. 1:41-44

Suharyadi, Statistika Untuk Ekonomi dan Keuangan Modern, Buku 1, Jakarta, Salemba 4, 2003.

Suwedo, S., Kapti, R.K., Djagal, W.M.,(2004) “Perpaduan Metode Problem Based Learning, Kuliah Umum dan Ceramah Pada Kuliah Pengantar Tekhnologi Pertanian Sebagai Wahana Pemula Untuk Pemberdayaan Jiwa Mandiri, Kewirausahaan dan Kepemimpinanyang Bertanggung Jawab Pada Mahasiswa”, Lontar Gajah Mada, 1(2), 91-96.

Wega, T.S., Triyono., Ria, A., (2005), “Penerapan Metode Diskusi, Pemodelan Komputer dan Praktek Penentuan Keasaman dan Karakterisasi Porosimetri Padatan Untuk Peningkatan Kualitas Mata Kuliah Kimia Permukaan dan Mahasiswanya”

Zacharopoulou, H., (2006)., “Two Learning Activities for a Large Introductory Statistics Class”., Journal of Statistics Education, [On-line], 5(3)

www. amstat.org/publication/jse/v14n1/zacharpoulou.html

DAFTAR RIWAYAT HIDUP

Dina Mellita

Jl. Balayudha Dalam No. 1047 Rt. 11

Palembang 30128

Phone. 0711-411230

Hp. 08127110923

Email: dina@mail.binadarma.ac.id

dmellita@yahoo.com

Data Pribadi

Jenis Kelamin

:

Perempuan

Tempat Lahir

:

Surakarta

Tanggal Lahir

:

6 Juli 1977

Agama

:

Islam

Status

:

Menikah

Latar Belakang Pendidikan

2000-2001

:

Master of Economic, National University of Malaysia

1995-1999

:

Sarjana Ekonomi, Jurusan Ekonomi Pembangunan, Universitas Sriwijaya

Pengalaman Kerja

Maret – Juli 2000

:

Asisten pada mata kuliah Ekonomi Moneter di Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang

Mei – Oktober 2000

:

Public Relation Officer, PT. Berlian Maju Motor, Palembang

Januari 2002

:

Research Assistance, Quality of Life Project, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Februari – Maret 2002

:

Survey Conduct, LESTARI, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

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  • Pengaruh Bunga Deposito Berjangkan dan IHSH Terhadap Nilai Transaksi Saham Di Bursa Efek Jakarta
  • Risk-Based Capital And Risk Taking Behaviour at Commercial Banks: A Case in Malaysia ( JKEB, Vol. 3 No. 1410-8038, Feb 2001)
  • The Financial System and Monetary Policy In An Islamic Economy (Jurnal MBIA, Vol.5 No. 1 April 2005)
  • The Distribution of Realized Stock Return And Volatility
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  • Young Entrepreneurship: Studi Eksploratif Mengenai Sikap dan Tujuan Menjadi Entrepreneur (Studi Kasus Pada Mahasiswa Jurusan Ekonomi dan Teknik Universitas Bina Darma Palembang)
  • Gender dan Cara Penilaian Ujian Akhir Mata Kuliah Mikroekonomi Melalui Pengujian Run Wald – Wolfowitz (Kopertis, 2008)

PALEMBANG, 22 September 2008

DINA MELLITA

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