ROLE OF THE LEADER IN CONNECTION
THE CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (THEORETICAL APPROACH)
Wiwin Agustian, SE, M.SI
The presence of a leader in an organization has a very important role especially in situations where there is ambiguity role. The function of a leader is not just guiding and directing subordinates, but the important thing is how leaders are able to provide vision and a clear mission or direction where the organization will be taken. In an era where there is a cultural shift, it can not be denied that the organization needs a leader who has a keen sensitivity and intuition that can direct subordinate to the goal to be achieved.
Keywords: Leaders and Organizational Culture
Existence of a leader at one particular organization have very important role particularly in situation of where happened by role ambiguity. function of Leader do not just guiding and instructing its subordinate, is all important but how the leader is Able to give clear direction or vision and mission where organization will be brought. In an era of where happened by the cultural friction, hence can not be denied again that organization require a leader owning intuition and sensitivity so sharply that can INSTRUCT its subordinate roomates wish toward the targets reached
Title: Organizational Culture And Leader
With the more advanced the development that has been running so fast and this without doubt has led to a number of impacts, so as to have danpak both positive and negative. One piece of evidence that shows that the rapid expansion of world trade is now bringing changes in the market system. Globalization seIing first touted and is believed not to be influential in the near future, has now demonstrated a very strong influence. Another factor that ultimately can not be avoided is the national boundaries become blurred so that each country can no longer rigidly observe sistemyang they take. Culture that underlies the existing system ultimately helped hold an enormous influence. It looks at the culture that developed in the country of Indonesia itself. If in the past the culture of mutual aid-which is obvious in the struggle, still strongly embedded in the people of Indonesia, it seems now to be questioned again. Powerful strikes against the value of the Indonesian currency to encourage people from a certain group to save yourself regardless of the other party. This raises a question mark is there that the individual values are not necessarily the values of the nation has entered a nation known for its spirit of mutual royongnya. Which is basically a cultural values, ebiasaan, rituals, myths and practices that continue in public life is the breath that animates and directs the behavior of members (Robbins, 1996). should underlie any movement of social life. In this sense culture not just as a base, but the important thing is that culture has a role as a conduit of identity and the ‘normative glue’. Leaders in this context has contributed greatly to how culture can be lived in earnest by its members. But the fact it shows that the role of the leader in this regard is not very clear so members to lose confidence and eventually life organsasi being off balance. If trust has been depleted, the result may arise are shared values lost and each individual trying to save themselves each in a very complicated situation and ambiguity.
Based on the background above, the problem with leadership and organizational culture is “How the role of leadership in relation to the culture of the organization”
Based on the problems above, it is the goal in this paper is to determine how the role of the leader in relation to organizational culture.
2.1. Leaders and Leadership
Leadership According to Stoner (Handoko: 1984) is as a process of influence on the direction and delivery of the activities a group of related tasks. Leadership is no longer seen as a guide, but as a partner who, together with other members trying to achieve that goal.
According to Kennedy, (1996) stated that the definition of leadership can be said to be equal to the number of people who have tried to define it. He himself defines leadership as a process or action to affect the activity of a group of organizations in order to achieve the goals set.
Fiedler (1967) is one of the many other experts researching on leadership states that leadership is basically a pattern of relationships among individuals who use the authority and its effect on a group of people to work together to achieve a goal. Of the two definitions have been proposed clearly show how leadership is defined, which is related to efforts to influence and exercise authority. Understanding gives an idea that the leader is seen as a person who has more skills in an effort to motivate people to do something like the expected leader.
Absolute leadership by (Crosby: 1996) is a leadership that has
1. Clear agenda, a leader should ideally have two agendas: an agenda for himself, and the second is the agenda for the organization. The purpose of the organization’s agenda is to set the framework of all the work done, while personal agenda related to the objectives to be achieved by personal guidance is in line with what he really wanted for himself, and only he knows personally. In this case, the agenda should be disclosed in a sentence can be clearly acceptable and measurable goals Nataprawira.
2. Personal Philosophy The philosophy of a leader should have a pragmatic implementation and understandable. The philosophy of the implementation of the framework was created from learning, innovation and decision
3. Enduring Relationship, organizational life basically consists of a number of transactions and relationships. The key to keeping a relationship is the lack of respect for others, see others in a positive manner and willingness to cooperate. Others in this case is not only limited to members only but including the customers, peers, coworkers, and suppliers.
4. Worldly, worldwide (being ‘worldly’) relates to other cultural fabric, technology, and information gathering. This means also how leaders are able menfaatkan-technology new technology, understand the global market, respect for other people, cultures, conditions and business practices that take place. It also means knowing what is going on and mengumulkan information that is up-to-date. Thus it is clear how the views of Crosby on leadership.
Stoner (Handoko: 1984) explains that leadership is:
1. Process to encourage and help others to work enthusiastically in achieving goals
2. Successful leadership depends on the behavior, skills, appropriate action, not on personal characteristics.
Peter F. Drucker (1996) in his book about the Leader of the Future should put more emphasis on how a leader should behave in the face of the world in the future. He said that an effective leader is not just delegate tasks, but they also do what they are delegated to subordinates. He further asserts that “leadership must be learned and can be learned ‘.
The leader in this case to determine where the business was about to take place, sasran-goals to be achieved both intenal and external assets and skills needed, opportunities and risks faced yng. The leader in this case is the strategist who ensures that the organization’s objectives will be achieved.
2.2. Organizational Culture
According Taliziduhu Ndraha, (2005). Cultural Organization is the principal settlement of the problems of external and internal implementation is done consistently by a group who then pass on to the members of the new recruits as a way to understand, think, and feel to the problems related as above.
Edgar Schein (Robin: 2002) argued that the culture of an organization can be divided into two dimensions:
1. Dimensions external environments; contained five essentials are:
a. mission and strategy, (b) goals, (c) means to Achieve Goals; (d) measurement, and (e) correction.
2. Dimensions of internal integration that there are six main aspects, namely:
a. common language, (b) group boundaries for inclusion and exclusion, (c) distributing power and status; (d) developing norms of intimacy, friendship, and love; (e) reward and punishment; dam (f) explaining and explainable: ideology and religion.
Meanwhile, Peter F.Drucker (1996) explores the six essential characteristics of the culture of the organization, namely:
(1) obeserved behavioral regularities; namely ness way of acting of the members seemed observed. When members interact with members of other organizations, they may use a common language, terms, or certain rituals;
(2) norms; namely that there are standards of behavior, including guidance on the extent to which the work should be done;
(3) the dominant values, ie the core values held jointly by all members of the organization, for example of the high quality products, low attendance or high efficiency;
(4) philosophy; namely the policies regarding the organization’s belief in treating customers and employees
(5) rules, ie the strict guidelines, associated with the progress of the organization
(6) organization climate; an overall feeling (an overall “feeling”) are portrayed and conveyed through spatial conditions, how to interact with the members of the organization, and how members of the organization and the customers treat themselves or others
2.3.Fungsi Organizational Culture,
Edgar Schein (Stepen Robin: 2002) explained that organizational culture has the following functions:
1. The role of a clear distinction between one organization to another.
2. Bringing a sense of identity for organization members.
3. Facilitate the emergence of growing commitment to something larger than individual self-interest.
4. Improving the social system.
5. Meaning making and control mechanism to integrate and shape the attitudes and behavior of the employees.
2.4. Formation of organizational culture.
According Taliziduhu Ndraha, (2005). Declared the establishment of the organization’s culture through the following stages:
1. Preparation of values, values that prevail in the organization surveyed, collected and filtered to obtain core values prevailing in the organization. Core values that have earned the starting point of the organization’s work culture dalammengembangkan
2. Internalizing the values of organizational values that exist on all members of the organization are internalized by means of socialization or simulation.
3. Formation change agentUntuk effective cultural transformation necessary to establish organizational change agents, whose job is to transmit the values of degan-cell culture models.
4. Prepare sistemMembuat systems and procedures to safeguard and maintain the continuity and progress of the company, with reference always refers to the organizational culture.
2.5. The concept of Organizational Culture.
Stephen P.Robbins, (2002) also explained about the three concepts of organizational culture is,
(1) a strong culture;
(2) Culture is a strategic fit, and
(3) an adaptive culture.
3.1. ROLE OF LEADERS IN CONNECTION WITH CULTURE
The behavior experts have been trying to develop what the nature, behavior, sources of power, or aspects of the situation that determines how best leaders can influence followers and that they reach the target group. So in essence, earlier theories reviewing more on who has the leadership skills to influence, and in the context where the influence was used. The difference terutamaterletak in disagreement about the identification of the leader and the leadership. Yukl (Robin: 2002) explained that basically the focus of attention in a variety of research on leadership is trying to explore the determinants of effective leadership. Yukl elaborate further, some theorists believe that leadership is no different to the social processes that occur among all members of the group and the leadership is seen as a collective process that is divided among its members. Others hold the view that essentially all group members have specific roles that include specific leadership roles. The point is that leaders and leadership can not simply be seen as the process of influencing the powers possessed but the important thing is how the leader of a partner for its members to achieve a common goal. So the effectiveness of a leader depends on how the members involved in the achievements of the organization’s objectives. One of the earliest theories of leadership trait theory is the view that a leader is someone who has qualities not shared by most people, that is: it has high intelligence, charismatic, able to make decisions, enthusiastic, have the strength, courage, integrity , and confident.
The issue of organizational culture (Culture Organization) recently has become
a review of a very interesting especially in the working conditions of uncertainty. Organizational culture re-excavated to explore the forces that have owned themselves but tend to be overlooked. At the time of the external environment are considered less able to cope with problems that arise, then the back to see the powers that be even though it is believed also can not solve the overall problem. However, by exploring the existing culture, it is expected to explore the power they have. Figure 1 below describes how the process of the formation of an organization’s culture (Taliziduhu Ndraha, 2005).
Culture is essentially a foundation for an organization. If the foundation is not strong enough, then how good of a building, it would not be sturdy enough to support him. There are some opinions that said the circumstances of that culture should be established. Of the various opinions that can not be denied is the role of leadership. There are a number of stages when a company wants to membntuk culture. First, the company had had to look ahead to what his vision, then what the value system, then how these values are applied dalamorganisasi itself, and finally see how its resources.
According to Susanto (1997) that organizational culture can be turned on in the first place through the selection, which gained members at least have the same values with the existing organizational culture; management above, in this case the leader has a very big role in instilling values values and norms through his actions; socialization, cultures should constantly socialized both new members and old members, the process may include orientation and training through stories about the founder, Rital existing ritual, symbols , and so on. Further it is said that the founder has a very big role, because of how the vision and mission organizations concerned are not released on how the founding values. At the end of these values must be actualized and the breath of the existing organizations. Thus it can be understood how the leaders have great influence because it must be able to act as a model for the creation of the existing values. In table 1 below describes how a leader can influence the culture of the organization, that a culture that is embedded in orgnasasi make the subordinates to carry out what has been established by a leader.
In the process of formation of Leader Influence Organizational Culture
Factors Organizational Culture
Leaders Leaders taking and maintaining subordinates (members) who think and feel the way they do,
Leaders indoctrinate and socialize the way they think and how you feel,
Leader behaviors own leaders are role models who encourage members to identify and internalize the beliefs, values, and their assumptions.
Source: Schein (in Hesselbein, Goldsmith and Beckhard, 1996)
Culture is owned by an organization that does not have a minor role. Heskett and Schlesinger (in Hesselbein, Goldsmith and Beckhard, 1996) says that the leader played a role in creating the conditions that ensure the creation budya job performance. This is due to members clearly able to read what you want from them so that they know exactly what they should do and are aware of their role in bringing. Steere, Jr.. (In Hesselbein, Goldsmith and Beckhard, 1996) argued that the culture has a role in providing identification and principles that guide the behavior of organizations and in making decisions, developing a method so that individuals can receive feedback on their performance, maintain a system of reward and reinforcement effect within the organization. Thus it can be understood how the culture can give ne identity and direction for the survival organisasi.Kondisi happened recently in Indonesia, seen by how vulnerable the public on various issues shows how weak cohesion that exists and how weak leadership role as a source of inspiration for the life of the nation. Indonesian society is paternalistic society, so in this case the role of the leader is the father who protect and nurture his men. This figure that eventually became a role model for all its members. Ing ngarso sung term seems appropriate tuladha portray how the relationship between the leadership of the men. Effect that arises is if this model missing or blurred function, it is the anxiety that arises because people are losing grip. Since the beginning emphasized the role of leadership in creating a culture conducive to the organization. In this case the role of the great leader because he had to socialize existing values or values that unite different taps based on different interests that will create the values that lived together. Able to perform as a leader whether or not a person can not be separated on a philosophy of life that are owned and a clear commitment to others. It had initially anticipated by Crosby (1996). He stressed the need for a leader to have a clear agenda and organisasis concerning himself so he knows where the intended direction. The agenda should involve long-term goals and short-term strtaegi be achieved by anticipating the possibilities that occur when the situation became confusing and ambiguous. It is precisely in this condition would seem the role of leader.
Opinions on the line with Steere, Jr.. (In Hesselbein, Goldsmith, Beckhard, 1996), he said that the most important part of the task of a leader is responsible for the establishment and development of corporate culture, which is done by: identifying and communicating the values and principles that guide the running of the company and the establishment of organizational decisions, setting an example of the behavior that the values and principles of the organization by example, as well as master the overall corporate culture, familiar with both the positive and the negative and reinforce the values on the things that are expected by the organization. Therefore, a leader should have a clear vision, extensive knowledge, a clear view of the situation at hand, so he can make a decision based on the desire to achieve common prosperity. With a clear vision, he can influence others in order to maximize personal and organizational development. All these can not be separated from personal mastering owned by a leader who will set out clearly in his personal agenda (Steere, Jr.., Bornstein and Smith, Weber, Schein, Pinchot, dalamHesselbein, Goldsmith and Beckhard, 1996).
Leaders who can be a leader is someone who has a firm personal philosophy. He will not be easily affected by the situation around him. Although such a fast changing environment, but he still had the commitment and consistent without losing direction to head to. Personal philisophy is not just owned by a leader, but growing through the process of learning, having a willingness to innovate, and the last is the courage to take decisions based on both of the above. The things above can only be implemented if he has patience, consistent with the principles that are owned, as well as having intrinsic motivation (Crosby, 1996). With a philosophy of life is, then the members will be able to assess the strength of character owned by their leaders that they will not hesitate to follow the leader. Opinions on the affirmed by Pinchot, Schein, Covey, Bolt, Steere, Jr.., Bornstein and Smith, Weber (in Hesselbein. Goldsmith and Beckhard, 1996) who argued that a leader should have a prominent personality, a clear commitment, the weight in effectiveness scale: the tireless, creative, credibility, calmness, competence, caring, character, pride, passion and integrity. The competencies are particularly important given the inherent fundamental
the role of the leader is himself as the architect of the culture, the culture of responsibility can not be delegated to others. Therefore, how much the values that ultimately created the culture of the organization will be internalized by its members and embodied in organizational life. With this basis that the organization will live on despite the change because it becomes the foundation for building the organization. Organizational life is inseparable from the interaction between one person to another. Interaction is not only limited to the members of the members, members of the leadership, but in broad terms the interactions involving people with whom the organization conducts transactions with clients or customers, suppliers, peers, and so on. Interaction is of course not going to last long if it is not based on the lack of respect between each other. How big are the values underlying service and positive attitude of its members will be read in the context of the relationship. In this case the leader became a model for its members. How does he behave tehadap others, not just as a leader who gives orders but the most important is the ability to build in harmony with not only rely on the ratio of sheer but was able to put in place the proper emotions (Crosby, 1996).
In order to maintain the relationship with the harmony, Weber (in
Hesselbein, Goldsmith and Beckhard, 1996) gives a suggestion is that leaders should provide more opportunities for others to try and do their own responsibility. He must also provide encouragement and enthusiasm that terbangkit motivation, establish cooperation and empowerment to others. In the Three-Dimensional Developing Leaders, James F. Bolt (dalamHesselbein, Goldsmith and Beckhard, 1996) found that leaders need to develop a three-dimensional dimensions of leadership, namely business, leadership and personal. All three have a very close relationship. One dimension that is personal, a leader is expected to have the ability to self-empowered and the integration of work and life, which means she must always pay attention to both their personal and work life in order to obtain employment and social balance.
Besides the above three points need to be owned by a leader, then the
Equally important is that the leader must be being “worldly”, in other words
leaders can take advantage of the development of new technology, understand the existing culture and other cultures, as well as always never cease to gather important information (Crosby, 1996). It also means that the leader is expected to have an orientation to the future, considering the future has its own complexity that sometimes even previously unimaginable (Bornstein, in Hesselbein, Goldsmith, and Beckhard, 1996). On top of that, basically which is highly demanded in the person of a leader is self-leadership (Leider, dalamHesselbein, Goldsmith and Beckhard, 1996). Further said, that without self-leadership is not possible for a leader to lead others. A leader is expected to be a role model for the members because no denying he was the co-ordinate others to jointly achieve a common goal. The primary basis for the values of togetherness that is full of confidence in the leader. When trust is low or even disappear altogether, then
that arises is unrest and chaos will eventually arise.
Basically a leader according to Myers (Handoko: 1984) is one who serves: to help define and achieve group goals, in this case the leaders make policies and set goals; established group terutamaketika tension arises, in this case a very large share leader in the effort to reduce the differences and invited the group to work together; provide identification symbols, in this case acting leader As with symbols so that the group can be strengthened in a unity. Based on that, it is pretty clear what exactly the role of a leader in the creation of the stability of the social system. When there is a crisis of values of togetherness, the leaders are expected to take a stand so that the direction of the goals to be oyang will be able to re-straightened.
Leader Relationships with Organizational Culture
Thus it can be said that there is a vital connection between culture and leadership. The success of a leader it will be seen dalampengaruh them directly to the culture of the organization. According to Turner (Taliziduhu Ndraha: 2005) Basically a leader role in the formation of culture, the culture help shape its members (Turner, 1994). Establishment of culture can only be viewed more closely through the behaviors of the members as well as the spirit of the push. Eventually it was realized that a leader should have a clear commitment, the commitment to self and commitment to the organization. If these values are held shared values and the common good, then it will be seen in were full of the spirit of existing members. When a role is ignored, it will not be surprised if the existence of the organization will be destroyed because of it people tend to leave the national cultures that are owned and precisely using cultures of other countries which he said is better. In such a situation, reflection and introspection necessary to all parties and the courage to admit shortcomings is wise that can be ascertained are returning members raised confidence. It’s when leaders want to recognize his weaknesses, then at that time the support of the members will appear as essentially forgiving the people of Indonesia is easy to forget a mistake.
Based on the discussion above, it can be concluded:
1. Leaders have a role in creating the cultural conditions that guarantee the creation of job performance. This is due to members clearly able to read what you want from them so that they know exactly what they should do and are aware of their role in bringing. Without denying this role brings a number of challenges that must be overcome because the goal laid on their shoulders. Despite the success and failure of the organization is not solely dependent on the leader, in this case the participation and willingness to sacrifice of the members have contributed not a little.
2. In this case the role of the leader is not small in disseminating the culture they have. As far as culture is not too deviated from the values held, then the role of the leader will not run so hard. Because the role of a leader in the culture is not a passive process. But it involves a proactive role of the people concerned. It means that people consciously accept the existing culture and become a basis for behavior kesehriannya.
3. Strength of a culture within the organization will look at the extent to which oganisasi able to survive in a difficult situation. In addition, the strength of the organization’s culture also lies in the extent to which members put their trust in their leader. When the situation turbulance, trust members are weak, then it is an indication that the role of leadership and culture internalized questionable experiencing a challenge. Now the most important in view of leadership theories are no longer based on the style of leadership per se, but the important thing is mampukan leaders use emotions and not rely solely on the ratio because it means a commitment based on conscience, the leader of their role .
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